Characterization of mice lacking the multidrug resistance protein MRP2 (ABCC2).
ABSTRACT The multidrug resistance protein Mrp2 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mainly expressed in liver, kidney, and intestine. One of the physiological roles of Mrp2 is to transport bilirubin glucuronides from the liver into the bile. Current in vivo models to study Mrp2 are the transporter-deficient and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rat strains. Previous reports showed hyperbilirubinemia and induction of Mrp3 in the hepatocyte sinusoidal membrane in the mutant rats. In addition, differences in liver cytochrome P450 and UGT1a levels between wild-type and mutant rats were detected. To study whether these compensatory mechanisms were specific to rats, we characterized Mrp2(-/-) mice. Functional absence of Mrp2 in the knockout mice was demonstrated by showing increased levels of bilirubin and bilirubin glucuronides in serum and urine, a reduction in biliary excretion of bilirubin glucuronides and total glutathione, and a reduction in the biliary excretion of the Mrp2 substrate dibromosulfophthalein. To identify possible compensatory mechanisms in Mrp2(-/-) mice, the expression levels of 98 phase I, phase II, and transporter genes were compared in liver, kidney, and intestine of male and female Mrp2(-/-) and control mice. Unlike in Mrp2 mutant rats, no induction of Mrp3 in Mrp2(-/-) mice was detected. However, Mrp4 mRNA and protein in liver and kidney were increased approximately 6- and 2-fold, respectively. Phenotypic analysis of major cytochrome P450-mediated activities in liver microsomes did not show differences between wild-type and Mrp2(-/-) mice. In conclusion, Mrp2(-/-) mice are a new valuable tool to study the role of Mrp2 in drug disposition.
SourceAvailable from: Johan W Jonker[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: For the elimination of environmental chemicals and metabolic waste products, the body is equipped with a range of broad specificity transporters that are present in excretory organs as well as in several epithelial blood-tissue barriers. Areas covered: ABCC2 and ABCC3 (also known as MRP2 and MRP3) mediate the transport of various conjugated organic anions, including many drugs, toxicants and endogenous compounds. This review focuses on the physiology of these transporters, their roles in drug disposition and how they affect drug sensitivity and toxicity. It also examines how ABCC2 and ABCC3 are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level by members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family of ligand-modulated transcription factors and how this can be therapeutically exploited. Expert opinion: Mutations in both ABCC2 and ABCC3 have been associated with changes in drug disposition, sensitivity and toxicity. A defect in ABCC2 is associated with Dubin-Johnson syndrome, a recessively inherited disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Pharmacological manipulation of the activity of these transporters can potentially improve the pharmacokinetics and thus therapeutic activity of substrate drugs but also affect the physiological function of these transporters and consequently ameliorate associated disease states.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 11/2014; 11(2):1-21. DOI:10.1517/17425255.2015.981152 · 2.93 Impact Factor
Article: What do drug transporters really do?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Potential drug-drug interactions mediated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier (SLC) transporter families are of clinical and regulatory concern. However, the endogenous functions of these drug transporters are not well understood. Discussed here is evidence for the roles of ABC and SLC transporters in the handling of diverse substrates, including metabolites, antioxidants, signalling molecules, hormones, nutrients and neurotransmitters. It is suggested that these transporters may be part of a larger system of remote communication ('remote sensing and signalling') between cells, organs, body fluid compartments and perhaps even separate organisms. This broader view may help to clarify disease mechanisms, drug-metabolite interactions and drug effects relevant to diabetes, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, gout, liver disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, inflammatory syndromes and organ injury, as well as prenatal and postnatal development.dressNature Reviews Drug Discovery 12/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.1038/nrd4461 · 37.23 Impact Factor