Rural-to-urban migrants and the HIV epidemic in China.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 08/2006; 10(4):421-30. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-005-9039-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT China is the next probable frontier for the global HIV epidemic. Central to this anticipated growth of the epidemic is the nation's new and growing population of rural-to-urban migrants. Although there are an estimated 120 million migrants, little information is available about their social and cultural context of their lives in urban areas and their HIV-related perceptions and behaviors. On the basis of the in-depth individual interviews conducted among 90 rural-to-urban migrants in 2 major Chinese cities, Beijing and Nanjing, this qualitative study was designed to explore these issues with a particular focus on their relevance to sexual transmission of HIV. The findings suggest an urgent need for HIV/STI prevention programs that address the cultural, social, and economic constraints facing the migrant population in China.

Download full-text


Available from: Xiaoyi Fang, Jan 21, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a cultural adaptation of a social cognitive theory-based HIV behavioral prevention program among young rural-to-urban migrants in China. The intervention design and assessment were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The intervention was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary behavioral outcome was the use of condoms. Other outcome measures include HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, HIV-related perceptions (PMT constructs), and intention to use condom. The mixed-effects regression models for condom use with regular partners indicated that overall frequency of condom use, condom use in last three sexual acts and proper condom use increased over time for the participants but the increases were significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects models for HIV-related perceptions indicated that extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response costs decreased while vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy increased over time for the intervention group. The increases in HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, and intention to use condom were also significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group. The data in the current study suggested efficacy of a social cognitive theory-based behavioral intervention in increasing condom use among young migrants in China. The intervention also increased protective perceptions and decreased risk perception posited by the theory (i.e., PMT).
    AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 08/2014; 26(4):296-316. DOI:10.1521/aeap.2014.26.4.296 · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mostly operating from a risk and risk-reduction paradigm, existing research on migrants in Vietnam tends to conceptualize sex and risky sexual behaviors as isolated life domains. This study begins to develop a contextually rich understanding of migrants' sex lives by examining the relationships among sex, work, and the constant pendulum-like migrating movements of 23 Vietnamese married migrants in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Using data from in-depth interviews, it was found that most participants had no sex in the city; this was followed by visits to the home village, where they had sex with their spouses as often as possible to make up for the "long drought" in the city. Within this sexual schema, sex came secondary, and even peripherally, to migrants' working lives; thus, exhaustion from work was cited by migrants as the overwhelming factor leading to their sexual problems. This study suggests that migrants' intimate lives are more strongly linked to their working lives than has previously been recognized, and that their sexual behaviors should be viewed in tandem with the hardships of their working lives.
    The Journal of Sex Research 04/2012; DOI:10.1080/00224499.2012.663419 · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Techniques of spatial statistics and GIS are applied to socio-economic, demographic and HIV sentinel data to characterize the geographical distribution of HIV prevalence in Zambia and to estimate current prevalence rates. Maps of the 4years under study (i.e. 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004) reveal a spatial variation in HIV prevalence with urban and provincial districts having higher prevalence than rural areas. However, there was an overall trend of decrease in HIV prevalence across the country. The year 2004 exhibited the most reduction, coinciding with protective sexual behavior campaigns operating in the country. Risk factors for HIV prevalence included literacy rates, unemployment, poverty and urban residency. Analysis of regression residual maps indicated high spatial autocorrelation: Moran’s I value was 0.28 (z=4.12 and p<0.000) and a highly significant Robust LM (lag; p<0.00000) suggestive of contagious and hierarchic spatial diffusion processes. High HIV prevalence rates among interdependent districts and locational similarity patterns suggest that HIV control programs in the country would require an integrated approach combining HIV prevention messages as well as an understanding of social and cultural interactions between interdependent districts that produce behavioral diffusion of HIV prevalence rates. KeywordsHIV and AIDS-Geospatial analysis-Surveillance data-Zambia
    GeoJournal 01/2012; 75(2):1-16. DOI:10.1007/s10708-010-9349-7