Rural-to-urban migrants and the HIV epidemic in China.
ABSTRACT China is the next probable frontier for the global HIV epidemic. Central to this anticipated growth of the epidemic is the nation's new and growing population of rural-to-urban migrants. Although there are an estimated 120 million migrants, little information is available about their social and cultural context of their lives in urban areas and their HIV-related perceptions and behaviors. On the basis of the in-depth individual interviews conducted among 90 rural-to-urban migrants in 2 major Chinese cities, Beijing and Nanjing, this qualitative study was designed to explore these issues with a particular focus on their relevance to sexual transmission of HIV. The findings suggest an urgent need for HIV/STI prevention programs that address the cultural, social, and economic constraints facing the migrant population in China.
Article: Social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors determine consistent condom use among rural-to-urban migrant female sex workers in Shanghai China.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To determine potential social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors that may result in motivating female sex workers (FSWs), who are rural-to-urban migrants, and their paying partners in Shanghai, China to promote consistent condom use (CCU) . METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain 20 geographic sites, which consisted of 1 or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. Five hundred four FSWs from 132 Xitou Fang (shampoo wash rooms), massage parlors, and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the perceptions and behaviors of individuals associated with a risk for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndromeHIV/AIDSself-efficacy at negotiating safe sexand the physical, social, and policy environment of the establishments where they worked. RESULTS: The percentage of FSWs who reported consistent condom use with their paying partners was 63.3%. Controlling for socio-demographic characteristics in multivariate analyses, environmental-structural support (OR, 3.96; CI, 2.52-6.22) for condom use was the most significant positive predictor of CCU among FSWs and their regular paying partners. A high perception of susceptibility and risk of HIV/AIDS (OR, 1.96; CI, 1.25-3.01), a high perception of benefits on condom use to protect themselves (OR, 2.06; CI, 1.32-3.22), and high safe sex self-efficacy (OR, 2.52; CI, 1.64-3.85) also play important roles on CCU based on multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental-structural factor support for condom use, in addition to social, psychological, and individual cognitive factors are significant predictors of CCU among FSWs, which should be assessed and addressed in research and interventions related to HIV/AIDS prevention among FSWs in China.BMC Public Health 08/2012; 12(1):599. · 2.00 Impact Factor
Article: HIV/STI risk by migrant status among workers in an urban high-end entertainment centre in Eastern China.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Large-scale internal migration in China may be an important mechanism for the spread of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of the risk behaviours of migrants. We conducted a self-administered survey among 724 employees of a high-end entertainment centre in Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of hometown of origin (Kunshan city, elsewhere in Jiangsu Province, or another province in China) and consecutive years living in Kunshan with measures of HIV/STI risk behaviour. We found that increased time living in Kunshan was associated with lower odds of using condoms as contraception [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.95] and consistent condom use with a casual partner (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.93), after controlling for gender, marital status age and income. The odds of having had an STI were significantly lower for Kunshan natives than those originally from outside provinces (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.96), but increasing years living in Kunshan was not related to lower risk for an STI. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that migrants living far from home participate in higher risk behaviour than locals. Findings suggest that adaptation to local culture over time may increase HIV/STI risk behaviours, a troublesome finding.Health Education Research 03/2011; 26(2):283-95. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) plays an important integral role in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, VCT service has not been effectively utilized among rural migrants, a high risk group in China. In this study, we developed a community based intervention to examine if community mobilization with comprehensive VCT is more effective than current HIV preventions with routine VCT service in promoting VCT acceptability among rural migrants in Shanghai, China. A comprehensive intervention with community mobilization and comprehensive VCT services including community-based VCT and mobile VCT was implemented during 2007-2009. Three communities in Minhang District of Shanghai were randomly selected and were designed to receive community mobilization and comprehensive VCT, traditional VCT and none intervention, respectively. After 24 months intervention, effects were evaluated by comparing outcome indicators between the baseline (2,690 participants) and follow-up surveys (1,850 participants). A substantial increase in VCT acceptance was observed among community mobilization group (94.9% vs. 88.5%, P<0.001), whereas the reverse effect was seen in the traditional VCT group (86.1% vs. 94.6%, P<0.001) and control group (69.0% vs. 91.7%, P<0.001). Rural migrants from community mobilization group were more likely to accept VCT (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.69-4.97). Rural migrants from community mobilization group also showed significant increase in HIV/AIDS knowledge, positive attitude towards HIV positive individuals and condom use. Community mobilization with comprehensive VCT has significant impact on promotion of VCT acceptance and utilization among rural migrants in Shanghai. These findings provide evidence to support community mobilization as a suitable strategy for VCT promotion among rural migrants in Shanghai, China.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60106. · 4.09 Impact Factor