Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
Leukemia Research (Impact Factor: 2.35). 08/2006; 30(7):841-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2005.12.004
Source: PubMed


Over many centuries, herbal remedies have treated a variety of ailments. This empiric observational approach has produced a number of leads for formulated medicines. Ganoderma lucidum extract was screened for its anti-proliferative activity using a panel of 26 human cancer cell lines. The six most sensitive hematologic cell lines were: HL-60 (ED50 26 microg/ml), U937 (63 microg/ml), K562 (50 microg/ml), Blin-1 (38 microg/ml), Nalm-6 (30 microg/ml) and RPMI8226 (40 microg/ml). Cell cycle analyses revealed a G2/M arrest, most prominently in HL-60 cells. Four hematopoietic cell lines (HL-60, Blin-1, U937, RPMI8226) were examined for apoptosis, which ranged between 21 and 92%. After exposure to G. lucidum extract, HL-60 cells became multinucleated with an increased DNA content. These results indicate that G. lucidum extract has a profound activity against leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells and may be a novel adjunctive therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

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Available from: Takashi Kumagai, Jun 01, 2014
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    • "In modern times, the mystery of G. lucidum arose the interest of scientists all over the world, and the publications and patents of G. lucidum have increased every year (Boh et al., 2007). It was reported that G. lucidum possessed activities including anti-tumor (Liu et al., 2009; Yue et al., 2007, 2008; Stanley et al., 2005; Sliva, 2006; Müller et al., 2006), antimicrobial (Yoon et al., 1994; Wang and Ng, 2006), antiviral (especially anti- HIV activities) (Min et al., 1998), and antiaging activities (Shieh et al., 2001). Triterpenoids are typical chemical constituents in G. lucidum, and have an important role in the pharmacological effects described above. "
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic study of the metabolites in Ganoderma lucidum led to isolation of 43 triterpenoids, six of them (1-6) are hitherto unknown. The structures of the latter were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies and comparison with the known related compounds. All of the compounds were assayed for their inhibitory activities against human HeLa cervical cancer cell lines. Some compounds exhibit significant cytotoxicity, and their structure-activity relationships are discussed.
    Phytochemistry 09/2010; 71(13):1579-85. DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.06.005 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Anti-Allergic ganoderic acids C and D Zhou, [20]; Liu, [18]; Smith, [16] Anti-Androgenic ganoderol B Liu et al., [92]; Fujita et al., [93]; Shimizu et al., [94] Anti-Angiogenic activity Ethanol extract (Compound not reported) Song, et al., [95] Anti-Herpetic Acidic protein bound polysaccharides Kim et al., [96]; Eo et al., [97]; Liu et al., [98]; Oh et al., [99] Anti-Oxidant Chloroform extract (Compound not reported) Karaman et al., [100]; Joseph et al., [84] Anti-Microbial: Anti-Viral, Anti-Bacterial, Anti- Fungal Neutral protein bound polysaccharide, Acidic protein bound polysaccharide, ganodermin Wasser, [4]; Stamets, [101]; Hobbs, [7]; McKenna, [8]; Gao, [10]; Smith, [16]; Suay, [102]; Yoon, [103]; Sugiura and Ito, [104]; Kim et al., [105]; Eo et al., 2000 [107]; Eo et al., [106]; Wang and Ng, [108] Estrogenic Ethanol extract (Compound not reported) Shimizu et al., [94] Anti-Mutagenic Methanol extract (Compound not reported) Lakshmi et al., [109] Anti-Ulcerogenic Polysaccharides Gao et al., [12] Anti-Proliferative activity Ganoderic acid T Hong, [110]; Jiang, [111]; Hu, [112]; Muller et al., [113]; Tang et al., [114] Cardiovascular and Circulatory Functions Powdered mycelium and water extract of mycelium (Compound not reported) Kabir, [115]; Soo, [116]; Lee, [117]; Jin et al., [118] 2 [34]. Crude polysaccharide fractions isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of G. lucidum potentiated the release of interferon (IFN)-from human T cells [38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi) is a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus which has been used extensively as "the mushroom of immortality" in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2000 years. A great deal of work has been carried out on therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum. The basidiocarp, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins/peptides and trace elements which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological effects including immunomodulation, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemo-preventive, antitumor, chemo and radio protective, sleep promoting, antibacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV), hypolipidemic, anti-fibrotic, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-herpetic, antioxidative and radical-scavenging, anti-aging, hypoglycemic, estrogenic activity and anti-ulcer properties. Ganoderma lucidum has now become recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis and diabetes. The macrofungus is very rare in nature rather not sufficient for commercial exploitation for vital therapeutic emergencies, therefore, the cultivation on solid substrates, stationary liquid medium or by submerged cultivation has become an essential aspect to meet the driving force towards the increasing demands in the international market. Present review focuses on the pharmacological aspects, cultivation methods and bioactive metabolites playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 12/2009; 10(8):717-42. DOI:10.2174/138920109789978757 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "Karst (Polyporaceae) has been used for centuries in East Asia to prevent and treat various human diseases such as hepatitis, hypertension, nephritis, bronchitis, immunological disorders, and cancer [1] [2]. Extracts from G. lucidum inhibited proliferation of human, mouse carcinoma cell lines and increase the immune function [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9], arrested human peripheral mononuclear cells at S phase [5], induced cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells [6], leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cells [7], and bladder cancer cells [8]. Triterpenes of G. lucidum suppressed protein kinase C, activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and G 2 -phase cell cycle arrest [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of cell cycle arrest of tumor cells induced by ganoderic acid Me (GA-Me) is not understood. In this work, GA-Me was found to possess remarkable cytotoxicity on highly metastatic lung carcinoma 95-D cell line in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The effect of GA-Me on cell cycle arrest was found in 95-D, p53-null lung cancer cells H1299, HCT-116 p53+/+ and HCT-116 p53−/− human colon cancer cells. To obtain an insight into the role of p53 in cell cycle arrest by GA-Me, 95-D, H1299, HCT-116 p53+/+ and HCT-116 p53−/− cells were used for further investigation. GA-Me arrested cell cycle at G1 phase in 95-D and HCT-116 p53+/+ cells while S phase or G1/S transition arrest in H1299 and HCT-116 p53−/− cells. The results suggested that p53 may be a target of GA-Me, and it may be looked at as a new promising candidate for the treatment of carcinoma cells.
    PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 08/2009; 44(8):928-933. DOI:10.1016/j.procbio.2009.03.018 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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