Down-regulation of stem cell genes, including those in a 200-kb gene cluster at 12p13.31, is associated with in vivo differentiation of human male germ cell tumors.
ABSTRACT Adult male germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise distinct groups: seminomas and nonseminomas, which include pluripotent embryonal carcinomas as well as other histologic subtypes exhibiting various stages of differentiation. Almost all GCTs show 12p gain, but the target genes have not been clearly defined. To identify 12p target genes, we examined Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) U133A+B microarray ( approximately 83% coverage of 12p genes) expression profiles of 17 seminomas, 84 nonseminoma GCTs, and 5 normal testis samples. Seventy-three genes on 12p were significantly overexpressed, including GLUT3 and REA (overexpressed in all GCTs) and CCND2 and FLJ22028 (overexpressed in all GCTs, except choriocarcinomas). We characterized a 200-kb gene cluster at 12p13.31 that exhibited coordinated overexpression in embryonal carcinomas and seminomas, which included the known stem cell genes NANOG, STELLA, and GDF3 and two previously uncharacterized genes. A search for other coordinately regulated genomic clusters of stem cell genes did not reveal any genomic regions similar to that at 12p13.31. Comparison of embryonal carcinoma with seminomas revealed relative overexpression of several stem cell-associated genes in embryonal carcinoma, including several core "stemness" genes (EBAF, TDGF1, and SOX2) and several downstream targets of WNT, NODAL, and FGF signaling (FGF4, NODAL, and ZFP42). Our results indicate that 12p gain is a functionally relevant change leading to activation of proliferation and reestablishment/maintenance of stem cell function through activation of key stem cell genes. Furthermore, the differential expression of core stem cell genes may explain the differences in pluripotency between embryonal carcinomas and seminomas.
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ABSTRACT: Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), unique mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) type, exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Oct4 and Nanog are pluripotent genes. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological functions of Oct4 and Nanog expression in DPSCs. Herein, we determined the critical role of an Oct4/Nanog axis modulating MSCs properties of DPSCs by lentiviral-mediated co-overexpression or co-knockdown of Oct4/Nanog in DPSCs. MSCs properties including osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation was assayed for expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, we observed that the expression profile of Oct4 and Nanog in dental pulp cells, which exerted properties of MSCs, was significantly up-regulated compared to that of STRO-1-CD146- dental pulp cells. Down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog co-expression significantly reduced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation capability, STRO-1, CD146, and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of DPSCs. In contrast, co-overexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhanced the expression level of STRO-1 and CD146, proliferation rate and osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation capability, and expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation markers. Our results suggest that Oct4-Nanog signaling is a regulatory switch to maintain properties in DPSCs.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10/2014; 15(10):18623-18639. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) protects normal cells from transformation by Ras, whereas cells lacking p14/p19(Arf) or other tumor suppressors can be transformed. The transcription factor C/EBPβ is required for OIS in primary fibroblasts but is down-regulated by H-Ras(V12) in immortalized NIH 3T3 cells through a mechanism involving p19(Arf) loss. Here we report that members of the serum-induced early growth response (Egr) protein family are also down-regulated in 3T3(Ras) cells and directly and redundantly control Cebpb gene transcription. Egr1-3 recognize three sites in the Cebpb promoter and associate transiently with this region after serum stimulation, coincident with Cebpb induction. Co-depletion of all three Egrs prevented Cebpb expression, and serum induction of Egrs was significantly blunted in 3T3(Ras) cells. Egr2-3 levels were also reduced in Ras(V12)-expressing p19(Arf) null MEFs, and overall Egr DNA-binding activity was suppressed in Arf-deficient but not WT MEFs, leading to Cebpb down-regulation. Analysis of human cancers revealed a strong correlation between EGR levels and CEBPB expression, regardless of whether CEBPB was increased or decreased in tumors. Moreover, over-expression of Egrs in tumor cell lines induced CEBPB and inhibited proliferation. Thus, our findings identify the Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ axis as an important determinant of cellular responses (senescence or transformation) to oncogenic Ras signaling. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/2014; 35(5). · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis.Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 01/2015; · 1.08 Impact Factor