Reproducibility of CT measurements of aortic valve calcification, mitral annulus calcification, and aortic wall calcification in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis
ABSTRACT Extracoronary calcifications may have clinical significance. The error in extracoronary calcification measurements is still unknown. Accurate quantification of calcifications of the aortic valve (AVC), mitral annulus (MAC), and aortic wall (AWC) may be possible by using cardiac computed tomography (CT). We sought to establish the interscan, interobserver, and intraobserver reproducibility of these measures in all cardiac CT scans in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
We measured extracoronary calcifications in 100 randomly selected participants to assess interobserver, interscan, and intraobserver variability. Two scans were available for analysis in 99 of these participants, and we quantified thoracic aorta and valvular calcifications.
Mean interscan variability of AVC was 9.7% +/- 11.4% and 8% +/- 10.3% for Agatston and volume scores, with variability of the median at 6.4% and 5.5%, respectively (P > .05). MAC inter-reader variability was 8.2% and 8.9%, with interscan variability of 28% and 33% and intrareader variability of 4% and 4.1%, respectively. For AWC, inter-reader variability was 3%-7.1%, interscan variability was 17%-18%, and intrareader variability was 0.4%-1.4%.
AVC, MAC, and AWC measurements are sufficiently reproducible to allow serial investigations over a time suitable for clinical studies.
SourceAvailable from: Sammy Elmariah[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Significant cardiovascular morbidity has been associated with mitral annulus calcification (MAC), but limited data exist regarding its progression. The purpose of this study was to examine the natural history of and risk factors for MAC progression. The MESA is a longitudinal cohort study of participants aged 45 to 84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease who underwent serial cardiac computed tomography studies with quantification of MAC. Regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with MAC incidence and progression. Prevalent MAC was observed in 534 (9%) of 5,895 participants. Over a median 2.3 years, 280 (5%) developed incident MAC. After adjustment, age was the strongest predictor of incident MAC (adjusted OR, 2.25 per 10 years; 95% CI, 1.97-2.58; P < .0001). Female gender, white ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, serum cholesterol, smoking, and interleukin-6 were also significant predictors of incident MAC. In participants with prevalent MAC, the median rate of change was 10.1 [IQR, -6.7 to 60.7] Agatston units (AU)/year. Baseline MAC severity was the predominant predictor of rate of MAC progression (β-coefficient per 10 AU, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.91; P < .0001), although ethnicity and smoking status possessed modest influence. Several cardiovascular risk factors predicted incident MAC, as did female gender. Severity of baseline MAC was the primary predictor of MAC progression, suggesting that, while atherosclerotic processes may initiate MAC, they are only modestly associated with its progression over these time frames.American heart journal 11/2013; 166(5):904-12. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2013.08.015 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives This study sought to investigate associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers with aortic valve calcification (AVC). Background Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a common progressive condition that involves inflammatory and calcification mediators. Currently there are no effective medical treatments, but mineral metabolism pathways may be important in the development and progression of disease. Methods We examined associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers, including serum phosphate, urine phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, with CT-assessed AVC at study baseline and in short-term follow-up in 6814 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Results At baseline, AVC prevalence was 13.2%. Higher serum phosphate levels were associated with significantly greater AVC prevalence (relative risk 1.3 per 1 mg/dL increment, 95% confidence incidence: 1.1 to 1.5, p < 0.001). Serum FGF-23, serum PTH, and urine phosphate were not associated with prevalent AVC. Average follow-up CT evaluation was 2.4 years (range 0.9–4.9 years) with an AVC incidence of 4.1%. Overall, phosphate metabolism biomarkers were not associated with incident AVC except in the top FGF-23 quartile. Conclusions Serum phosphate levels are significantly associated with AVC prevalence. Further study of phosphate metabolism as a modifiable risk factor for AVC is warranted.Atherosclerosis 04/2014; 233(2):331–337. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.12.051 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine inter-observer and inter-examination variability for aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral valve and annulus calcification (MC) in low-dose unenhanced ungated lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). We included 578 lung cancer screening trial participants who were examined by CT twice within 3 months to follow indeterminate pulmonary nodules. On these CTs, AVC and MC were measured in cubic millimetres. One hundred CTs were examined by five observers to determine the inter-observer variability. Reliability was assessed by kappa statistics (κ) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Variability was expressed as the mean difference ± standard deviation (SD). Inter-examination reliability was excellent for AVC (κ = 0.94, ICC = 0.96) and MC (κ = 0.95, ICC = 0.90). Inter-examination variability was 12.7 ± 118.2 mm(3) for AVC and 31.5 ± 219.2 mm(3) for MC. Inter-observer reliability ranged from κ = 0.68 to κ = 0.92 for AVC and from κ = 0.20 to κ = 0.66 for MC. Inter-observer ICC was 0.94 for AVC and ranged from 0.56 to 0.97 for MC. Inter-observer variability ranged from -30.5 ± 252.0 mm(3) to 84.0 ± 240.5 mm(3) for AVC and from -95.2 ± 210.0 mm(3) to 303.7 ± 501.6 mm(3) for MC. AVC can be quantified with excellent reliability on ungated unenhanced low-dose chest CT, but manual detection of MC can be subject to substantial inter-observer variability. Lung cancer screening CT may be used for detection and quantification of cardiac valve calcifications. • Low-dose unenhanced ungated chest computed tomography can detect cardiac valve calcifications. • However, calcified cardiac valves are not reported by most radiologists. • Inter-observer and inter-examination variability of aortic valve calcifications is sufficient for longitudinal studies. • Volumetric measurement variability of mitral valve and annulus calcifications is substantial.European Radiology 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3191-0 · 4.34 Impact Factor