Anxiety is a prominent indication for herbal medicine. This systematic review was therefore aimed at summarising the evidence for or against the anxiolytic efficacy of such treatments. Six databases were searched for all randomised clinical trials testing herbal monopreparations in the alleviation of anxiety. Seven such studies and one systematic review were located. Eight different herbals were studied. The herbal medicines, which, according to these data are associated with anxiolytic activity in humans, are Piper methysticum and Bacopa monniera. Only for kava were independent replications available. It was concluded that there is a lack of rigorous studies in this area and that only kava has been shown beyond reasonable doubt to have anxiolytic effects in humans.
"BM is reported in several ancient Ayurvedic treatises in which it is recommended in formulations for the management of a wide range of mental conditions including anxiety, poor cognition and lack of concentration. Brahmi is currently recognized as being effective in the treatment of mental illnesses and epilepsy (Tripathi et al. 1996; Kishore and Singh 2005; Ernst 2006; Mathew et al. 2011). BM contains Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids and Saponins; however, saponins are considered to be the principal active constituents of the plant. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) is a complex mixture of ingredients with a uniquely wide spectrum of neuropharmacological influences upon the central nervous system including enhanced learning and memory with known antioxidant potential and protection of the brain from oxidative damage. The present study demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of BM on cognitive impairment and oxidative damage, induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rat models. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with BM at a selected dose (30 mg/Kg) given orally for 2 weeks and then were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/Kg), while sham operated rats were received the same volume of vehicle. Behavioral parameters were subsequently monitored 2 weeks after the surgery using the Morris water maze (MWM) navigation task then were sacrificed for biochemical, immunohistochemical (Cu/Zn-SOD) and histopathological assays. ICV-STZ-infused rats showed significant loss in learning and memory ability, which were significantly improved by BM supplementation. A significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus were observed in ICV-STZ rats. Moreover, decrease in Cu/Zn-SOD expression positive cells were observed in the hippocampus of ICV-STZ rats. BM supplementation significantly ameliorated all alterations induced by ICV-STZ in rats. The data suggest that ICV-STZ might cause its neurotoxic effects via the production of free radicals. Our study demonstrates that BM is a powerful antioxidant which prevents cognitive impairment, oxidative damage, and morphological changes in the ICV-STZ-infused rats. Thus, BM may have therapeutic value for the treatment of cognitive impairment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae) is a small creeping herb with numerous branches, small oblong leaves, and light purple flowers. The entire plant is medicinally important as it contains triterpene saponins. Important saponins include Bacosides A1, bacosides A3 bacosaponins A, B, C, D, E & F. The constituents responsible for Bacopa’s cognitive effects are bacosides A and B. In the present investigation, attempt has been made for the development of the novel in vitro methods of propagation. Explants were aseptically cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and plant medium supplemented with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins like 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), 6-Benzyl Adenine (6-BA) and Kinetin, individually as well as in combinations. Calli were also subjected to elicitation treatment. After 6th passage, calli were subjected to extraction and phytochemical screening. Out of various hormonal combinations, the MS medium supplemented with 6 BA (2ppm) + IAA (1ppm) was found to be the most effective for induction of Yellowish green callus, within 15 days. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of callus showed the presence of Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Phenolic compounds and Tannins, Flavonoids, Proteins and free amino acids, Saponins, Steroids and Terpenoids.
"Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is the natural and biologically active flavones group of flavonoids. It is the focus of this review (Nijveldt et al., 2001; Awad et al., 2003; Zheng et al., 2003; Ernst, 2006; Huang et al., 2006; Scheck et al., 2006; Cole et al., 2008; Kale et al., 2008; Parajuli et al., 2009) (Figure 1). Chrysin can be extracted from plants, such as passion flower (Beaumont et al., 2008), silver linden, honey and propolis of some geranium species (Samarghandian et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter summarises chrysin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and reduce angiogenesis in most tested cancer cells, including cervical cancer cells. The biological activities of chrysin may be improved by modification of the original structure of chrysin or combination therapy. Hence, more significant research that may help to develop ways of improving the effectiveness of chrysin in the treatment of human cancers is warranted.
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