Clinical and psychometric characterization of depression in mixed mania: a report from the French National Cohort of 1090 manic patients.
ABSTRACT Despite extensive research recently focused on mixed mania, it is uncertain as how best to define it clinically, psychometrically (which has major bearing on its prevalence), and the methodology needed for future research. This topic is also of historical interest, because Magnan (1890) [Magnan, V., 1890. La Folie Intermittente. G Masson, Paris.] suggested that "combined [mixed] states" linked Falret's "circular insanity" with Baillarger's "dual insanity" (both described in 1854). This work eventually led to the Kraepelinian synthesis of all manic, mixed, and depressive states into the unitary rubric of "manic-depressive insanity (1899/1921).
EPIMAN-II Thousand" (EPIMAN-II MILLE) is a French national collaborative study, which involved training 317 psychiatrists working in different sites representative of psychiatric practice in France. We recruited 1090 patients hospitalized for acute DSM-IV mania. assessed at index admission by the following measures: the Mania Rating Scale (MRS), the Beigel-Murphy Scale (MSRS), a newly derived checklist of depressive symptoms least contaminated by mania, MADRS for severity of depression, and the SAPS for psychotic features.
The rate of mixed mania, as defined by at least 2 depressive symptoms, was 30%. Even with this broad definition, we found significantly higher female representation. This clinical sub-type of mania was characterized by high frequency of past diagnostic errors, particularly those of anxiety and personality disorders. Refined definition of co-exiting depression was obtained from an abbreviated version of the MADRS (6 items), with distinct "emotional-cognitive" symptoms, and "psychomotor inhibition" factors, both of which were separable from an "irritable" factor linked to lability and poor judgment. Mixed mania was psychometrically best identified by a MADRS score of 6 (80% sensitivity, 94% specificity) and validated by a mixed polarity of first episodes, a higher rate of recurrence, psychotic features, and suicide attempts.
The data deriving from EPIMAN, the largest and only national study ever conducted on mania, provide definitive characterization of the clinical and psychotic structure of mixed mania, which accounts for 1 out of 3 patients who present with mania. This figure is more accurate than higher rates reported in the literature because, in describing "mixity", we eliminated depressive features that could be contaminated by mania. Despite the prominent affective features described herein, the bipolar nature of mixed mania is often missed, with the result that these patients are diagnosed as having anxiety and/or personality disorders. It is of great public health significance for psychiatrists to recognize the bipolar nature of this condition that has been known as a major phase of manic-depressive illness since at least Magnan, a disciple of Falret and Baillarger.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new "with mixed features" specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current) manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria); symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I "with mixed features" specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms) or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire. Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I "with mixed features," exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients "with mixed features" had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4), a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%), and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%), compared to patients with 0-2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05). This study found that patients with BD-I "with mixed features" (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms during a manic episode), suffered, on average, from a greater burden of disease than patients with pure mania. Improved identification of these patients may help to optimize treatment outcomes.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:1137-43. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S82532 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the leading causes of disability among medical and psychiatric disorders associated with prevalent, chronic, severe and highly disabling characteristics. This study was designed to identify clinical characteristics and practice patterns in the management of outpatients with BD across Turkey. Method: This multi-center cross-sectional study involving 1001 patients diagnosed with using DSM-IV criteria was conducted prospectively at 31 outpatient psychiatry clinics for 12 months. Patient demographics, clinical features, family history, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the treatment modalities were assessed by means of semistructured questionnaire. Results: Age at the onset of symptoms was 26.7 +/- 9.8 years, age at diagnosis was 28.9 +/- 10.4 years, and the time interval between them was 2.2 +/- 4.7 years. Misdiagnosis prior to current diagnosis was evident in 40.3% of bipolar patients. The most common type of first episode was mania (57.1%) and depression (34.5%). Comorbid psychiatric illness was identified in 12.0% of patients. Only 10% of patients were receiving monotherapy. The most commonly prescribed drugs for depressive, manic and mixed episodes were lithium, sodium valproate and quetiapine, respectively. Conclusion: The time interval between onset of symptoms and the initial diagnosis in Turkish sample was quite shorter than reported in the literature. The misdiagnosis rate in the present study and recent studies were similar. A low comorbidity rate appears to indicate a lower prevalence of comorbid disorders in BD in Turkish sample. Lithium, sodium valproate and atypical antipsychotics were more commonly used drugs in the treatment of BD in Turkey.Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi 12/2014; 15(4):1. DOI:10.5455/apd.152521 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have analyzed predictors of length of stay (LOS) in patients admitted due to acute bipolar manic episodes. The purpose of the present study was to estimate LOS and to determine the potential sociodemographic and clinical risk factors associated with a longer hospitalization. Such information could be useful to identify those patients at high risk for long LOS and to allocate them to special treatments, with the aim of optimizing their hospital management. This was a cross-sectional study recruiting adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria) who had been hospitalized due to an acute manic episode with a Young Mania Rating Scale total score greater than 20. Bivariate correlational and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of LOS. A total of 235 patients from 44 centers were included in the study. The only factors that were significantly associated to LOS in the regression model were the number of previous episodes and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at admission (P < 0.05). Patients with a high number of previous episodes and those with depressive symptoms during mania are more likely to stay longer in hospital. Patients with severe depressive symptoms may have a more severe or treatment-resistant course of the acute bipolar manic episode.Annals of General Psychiatry 03/2012; 11(1):7. DOI:10.1186/1744-859X-11-7 · 1.53 Impact Factor