This study compared the quality and quantity of stormwater runoff from replicated asphalt, permeable paver, and crushed-stone driveways. Rainfall was measured on-site and runoff was recorded using tipping buckets. Flow-weighted composite runoff samples were analyzed weekly for total suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, total phosphorus (TP), zinc, lead, and copper. Infiltration rate was determined on each driveway annually. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that stormwater runoff was significantly different among each driveway type; the order of decreasing runoff was asphalt> paver> stone. Average infiltration rates were 0, 11.2 and 9.0 cm/h for asphalt, paver, and crushed stone driveways, respectively. Both paver and crushed stone driveways reduced stormwater runoff as compared to asphalt driveways. Runoff from paver driveways contained significantly lower concentrations of all pollutants measured than runoff from asphalt driveways. However, runoff from crushed stone driveways was similar in concentrations to runoff from asphalt driveways, except for TP concentrations, which were lower in runoff from crushed stone driveways than runoff from asphalt driveways. The mass export of measured pollutants followed the relative differences in stormwater runoff, rather than differences in concentrations.
"Calibration and validation of stormwater runoff was followed by calibration and validation of stormwater quality. No data were available on the effectiveness of individual LID practices at Jordan Cove, with the exception of the crushed stone and paver driveways (Gilbert and Clausen, 2006). The pollutant buildup and washoff functions in SWMM are similar to the equations developed for the accumulation and washoff of dust and dirt on street surfaces (APWA, 1969; Sartor et al., 1974). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Storm Water Management Model was used to simulate runoff and nutrient export from a low impact development (LID) watershed and a watershed using traditional runoff controls. Predictions were compared to observed values. Uncalibrated simulations underpredicted weekly runoff volume and average peak flow rates from the multiple subcatchment LID watershed by over 80%; the single subcatchment traditional watershed had better predictions. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Manning's n for swales, and initial soil moisture deficit were sensitive parameters. After calibration, prediction of total weekly runoff volume for the LID and traditional watersheds improved to within 12 and 5% of observed values, respectively. For the validation period, predicted total weekly runoff volumes for the LID and traditional watersheds were within 6 and 2% of observed values, respectively. Water quality simulation was less successful, Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients >0.5 for both calibration and validation periods were only achieved for prediction of total nitrogen export from the LID watershed. Simulation of a 100-year, 24-h storm resulted in a runoff coefficient of 0.46 for the LID watershed and 0.59 for the traditional watershed. Results suggest either calibration is needed to improve predictions for LID watersheds or expanded look-up tables for Green–Ampt infiltration parameter values that account for compaction of urban soil and antecedent conditions are needed.
JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 06/2015; 51(3). DOI:10.1111/jawr.12272 · 1.35 Impact Factor
"Reduction of runoff volume is one of the main storm water management roles that permeable pavements play (Dreelin et al. 2006; Collins et al. 2008; Ball and Rankin 2010; Imran et al. 2013). The runoff reduction rate of a permeable pavement system is defined as the fraction or percentage of runoff volume reduced by the system over the long term; it varies significantly due to differences in design, climatic, and operating conditions (Brattebo and Booth 2003; Gilbert and Clausen 2006; Collins et al. 2008; Drake et al. 2012). Accurate and reliable methods are needed to estimate the long-term average runoff reduction rates of permeable pavement systems to ensure that optimum systems can be designed and constructed. "
"Pervious pavements are used in various environmental applications and their efficiency has been proved in removing pollutants such as hydrocarbons (Pratt et al., 1999; Newman et al., 2002), metals (Legret and Colandini, 1999), nutrients (Brattebo and Booth, 2003) and suspended solids (Gilbert and Clausen, 2006). Pervious pavements are also capable of reducing the heat island effect by means of evaporative cooling since porous layers retain a significant amount of water, which is released back into the atmosphere through evaporation during sunlight hours (Vu Thanh and Takashi, 1997; Wanphen and Nagano, 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pervious pavements offer a solution for rainwater runoff treatment in urban areas, combining storm-water management with water reuse purposes when the sub-bases become rainwater reservoirs. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour research into these systems has demonstrated their contribution to palliating the urban heat island effect in the hottest season and to delaying freezing during the coldest season. Recent investigations related to pervious pavements and their sub-bases have enabled the use of these structures combined with Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) in addition to the other well-known applications. The aim of this field study is to investigate the temperature response observations of the water stored in the sub-bases of different pervious pavements under specific conditions, in order to evaluate the possibility of introducing GSHP technology. The base and sub-base temperatures of different types of pervious pavements were monitored during one year and the results obtained show the differences in pervious pavements temperature compared to air temperature over the period of study; and demonstrate that the sub-base is less affected by the air temperature than the base, due to the insulating capacity of pervious pavements. On the other hand, water samples were taken from the different pervious pavement sub-bases in order to assess the water quality deterioration due to the temperatures reached in the sub-base, focused on investigating the presence of Legionella in this particular aquatic environment.
Water Resources Management 12/2013; 27(15). DOI:10.1007/s11269-013-0270-y · 2.60 Impact Factor
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