Comparison of the potency of newly developed and currently available oximes to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT Reactivation potency of three newly developed oximes K027, K033 and K048 was tested using standard in vitro and in vivo reactivation tests. K027 and K048 seem to be efficacious reactivators of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. K033 is sufficient reactivator of cyclosarin-inhibited AChE. However, its potency is poor compared with current "gold standard" oxime HI-6.
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ABSTRACT: Malathion is an organophosphate (OP) pesticide whose toxicity depends on its bioactivation to malaoxon. Human malathion poisoning has been treated with oximes (mainly pralidoxime) in an attempt to reactivate OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, pralidoxime has shown unsatisfactory therapeutic effects in malathion poisoning and its routine use has been questioned. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro potency of standards and newly developed oximes in reactivating malaoxon-inhibited AChE derived from mouse brain supernatants. Malaoxon displayed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on mouse brain AChE (IC50 = 2.36 μM), and pralidoxime caused a modest reactivating effect (30% of reactivation at 600 μM). Obidoxime and trimedoxime, as well as K047 and K075, displayed higher reactivating effects (from 55% to 70% of reactivation at 600 μM) when compared with pralidoxime. The results show that obidoxime, trimedoxime, K074 and K075 present higher reactivating effects on malaoxon-inhibited AChE under in vitro conditions when compared with pralidoxime. Taking into account the unsatisfactory effects of pralidoxime as antidotal treatment in malathion poisonings, the present results suggest that obidoxime, trimedoxime, K074 and K075 might be interesting therapeutic strategies to reactivate malaoxon-inhibited AChE in malathion poisonings.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 08/2010; 107(3):768 - 773. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxime K027 is a low-toxic bisquaternary compound originally developed as a reactivator of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by nerve agents. The reactivation potency of K027 has been tested as a potential reactivator of AChE inhibited by tabun, sarin, cyclosarin, soman, VX, Russian VX, paraoxon, methylchlorpyrifos, and DDVP. The results show that oxime K027 reactivated AChE inhibited by almost all tested inhibitors to more than 10%, which is believed to be enough for saving the lives of intoxicated organisms. In the case of cyclosarin- and soman-inhibited AChE, oxime K027 did not reach sufficient reactivation potency.Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 02/2010; 25(4):509-12. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oximes are well known as acetylcholinesterase reactivators and are used in organophosphorus poisoning to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Therapeutically available oximes, namely, pralidoxime (2-PAM), obidoxime, trimedoxime and Hagedorn oxime (HI-6), have no broad-spectrum activity against structurally different kinds of organophosphorus anticholinesterases. The widely used oxime, 2-PAM, is least effective. The focus of the review is to find an oxime that is broad spectrum and superior to the presently available oximes for the treatment of organophosphorus poisoning. Numerous oxime-based reactivators have been synthesized -in laboratories in Croatia, United States of America, Israel and most recently in Czech Republic. Some experimental oximes synthesized in Czech Republic and named as K-series of oximes have been found promising. Among them, K-27 and K-48 have higher or comparable efficacy to all available oximes though it is not effective against all organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. They are also efficacious in pretreatment protocol for OP anticholinesterases. K-27 oxime is a promising candidate to replace therapeutically available oximes with respect to insecticide/pesticide organophosphorus poisoning. K27 and K48 may be candidates to replace the only approved pretreatment drug, pyridostigmine, in military combat medicine for OP nerve agent. Keywords: K-oximes, K-27 and K-48 oxime, Bispyridinium aldoxime, Acetylcholinesterase reactivators, OPC poisoning.Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 06/2011; 10(3):341-349. · 0.50 Impact Factor