Transcriptional regulation of the human reduced folate carrier in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells
ABSTRACT The transcriptional regulation of the human reduced folate carrier (hRFC), involved in cellular uptake of methotrexate and reduced folates, was studied in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The hRFC gene is regulated by six noncoding exons (A1/A2 and A to E) and multiple promoters. In ALL, hRFC-A1/A2 and hRFC-B are the major transcript forms.
RNAs from 18 ALL lymphoblast specimens and 10 nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient ALL xenografts were assayed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR for hRFC-A1/A2 and hRFC-B transcripts and for transcripts encoding USF1, GATA1, Sp1, and Ikaros transcription factors. For the xenografts, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays assessed transcription factor binding to the hRFC-A1/A2 and hRFC-B promoters. CpG methylation density within a 334-bp region, including the core hRFC-B promoter, was established by bisulfite sequencing. hRFC-A1/A2 and hRFC-B promoter polymorphisms were assayed by DNA sequencing.
For the 28 ALLs, hRFC-A1/A2 and hRFC-B transcripts spanned a 546-fold range. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shift assays, binding was confirmed for USF1 and GATA1 for hRFC-A1/A2, and for Sp1, USF1, and Ikaros for hRFC-B. hRFC transcript levels correlated with those for GATA1 and USF1 for hRFC-A1/A2 and with Sp1 and USF1 transcripts for hRFC-B. CpG methylation in ALL did not correlate with hRFC-B transcripts. In 40 ALL and 17 non-ALL specimens, 2 cosegregating high-frequency polymorphisms (T-1309/C-1217 and C-1309/T-1217; allelic frequencies of 36% and 64%, respectively) were detected in the A1/A2 promoter; none were detected in promoter B. The hRFC-A1/A2 polymorphisms only slightly affected promoter activity.
Our results show a complex regulation of hRFC in ALL involving the hRFC-A1/A2 and hRFC-B promoters and noncoding exons. Although Sp1, USF1, and GATA1 levels are critical determinants of hRFC transcription in ALL, neither DNA methylation nor promoter polymorphisms contribute to differences in hRFC expression.
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the biology of the major facilitative membrane transporters, the reduced folate carrier (RFC) (SLC19A1) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) (SLC46A1). Folates are essential vitamins, and folate deficiency contributes to a variety of heath disorders. RFC is ubiquitously expressed and is the major folate transporter in mammalian cells and tissues. PCFT mediates the intestinal absorption of dietary folates and appears to be important for transport of folates into the central nervous system. Clinically relevant antifolates for cancer such as methotrexate and pralatrexate are transported by RFC and loss of RFC transport is an important mechanism of methotrexate resistance in cancer cell lines and in patients. PCFT is expressed in human tumors, and is active at pH conditions associated with the tumor microenvironment. Pemetrexed is an excellent substrate for both RFC and PCFT. Novel tumor-targeted antifolates related to pemetrexed with selective membrane transport by PCFT over RFC are being developed. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding the structural and functional properties, and the regulation of RFC and PCFT. The molecular bases for methotrexate resistance associated with loss of RFC transport and for hereditary folate malabsorption, attributable to mutant PCFT, were determined. Future studies should continue to translate molecular insights from basic studies of RFC and PCFT biology into new therapeutic strategies for cancer and other diseases.Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 01/2014; 42(4). DOI:10.1124/dmd.113.055723 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously observed an unidentified, tyrosine-phosphorylated, membrane-associated, 66-68-kDa protein which was present in the L1210 murine leukemia cells but not present, at least in the tyrosine-phosphorylated form, in cisplatin-methotrexate (CDDP-MTX) cross-resistant L1210/DDP cells. We purified and characterized this 66-68-kDa protein by affinity chromatography purification using its two identified properties, tyrosine phosphorylation and MTX-binding, and yielded a single band of 66-68 kDa. The purified protein was subjected to trypsin digestion and the isolated peptide fragments were sequenced and yielded two partial peptide sequences: VEIIANDQ and VTNAVVTVPAYFNDSQRQA. The two peptide sequences were used to search for the mouse genome at the national center for biotechnology information (NCBI) database for Open Reading Frame Sequence (ORFs) containing these peptides using the TBLASTN function. A single gene was identified containing both sequences, the HSPa8 gene, which codes for the heat shock family protein, HSC70. We further demonstrated that HSC70 is a MTX-binding protein using a binding assay with MTX-agarose beads followed by Western blotting. The HSC70 also existed in various cancer cell lines and showed binding to MTX. Additionally, the HSC70 protein, cloned from the L1210 murine leukemia cells, was expressed and purified from E. coli cells using a polyhistidine-tag purification system and it also showed the binding properties with MTX. DnaK, the HSC70 homologue in E. coli, also binds to MTX. By using the purified truncated HSC70 domains, we identified the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) domain of HSC70 that can bind to MTX. Thus, we have tentatively characterized a new, novel property of HSC70 as a MTX-binding protein.Cell Stress and Chaperones 10/2012; DOI:10.1007/s12192-012-0376-9 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to identify tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMR's) in the folate transport genes in placental tissue compared with leukocytes, and from placental tissues obtained from normal infants or with neural tube defects (NTDs). Using pyrosequencing, we developed methylation assays for the CpG islands (CGIs) and the CGI shore regions of the folate receptor α (FOLR1), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) genes. The T-DMRs differed in location for each gene and the difference in methylation ranged between 2 and 54%. A higher T-DMR methylated fraction was associated with a lower mRNA level of the FOLR1 and RFC1 genes. Methylation fractions differed according to RFC1 80G > A genotype in the NTD cases and in leukocytes from subjects with high total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). There were no differences in methylated fraction of folate transporter genes between NTD cases and controls. We suggest that T-DMRs participate in the regulation of expression of the FOLR1 and RFC1 genes, that the RFC1 80G > A polymorphism exerts a gene-nutrition interaction on DNA methylation in the RFC1 gene, and that this interaction appears to be most prominent in NTD-affected births and in subjects with high tHcy concentrations.Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 02/2013; 8(3). DOI:10.4161/epi.23988 · 5.11 Impact Factor