To address the role of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemic in China.
To explore the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and the existing prevention efforts among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.
Review of behavioral and STD/HIV prevention studies addressing MSM in China.
Sexual risk behaviors including unprotected group sex, anal sex, casual sex, and commercial sex were prevalent among Chinese MSM. Many Chinese MSM also engaged in unprotected sex with both men and women. Most MSM either did not perceive that they were at risk of HIV/AIDS or underestimated their risk of infection. Surveillance and intervention research among these men are still in the preliminary stages.
Chinese MSM are at risk for HIV/STD infection and potential transmission of HIV to the general population. In addition to sexual risk reduction among MSM, reduction of homosexuality- related stigma should be part of effective intervention efforts. Volunteers from the MSM community and health care workers in primary health care system may serve as valuable resources for HIV/STD prevention and control among MSM.
"We noted that heterosexual older men were more likely to engage in commercial sex, while gay/bisexual older men were more likely to engage in casual sex; this pattern is similar to that of heterosexual and gay/bisexual young men in China [14, 15]. Such a pattern may depend primarily on the availability of casual and commercial sex partners; it is easier for gay/bisexual men to find casual sex partners but easier for heterosexual older men to find commercial sex partners. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
China’s population is quickly aging and this trend is expected to continue. Thus it is important to develop HIV interventions to help protect older Chinese from infection. Limited information exists regarding sexual risk behaviors and associated personal motivations among persons aged 50 and over in China.
In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 HIV-infected and 14 uninfected men aged 50 and over in Shanghai, China.
More than 71% of heterosexual participants had engaged in commercial sex, 37.5% either had engaged in casual sex or had a steady extramarital partner. All gay/bisexual participants had engaged in casual sex with men, and 16.7% had engaged in commercial sex. Personal motivations associated with sexual risk behaviors included sexual desire and interest in sex remaining high at an older age, unfulfilled sexual desires within marriage, homosexual or bisexual orientation, need to socialize with others, peer influence, personal choice of “hobby”, and financial freedom.
This study sheds light on the sexual needs of older people. Our findings underscore the need for both greater education in order to reshape societal perceptions of sexuality among older adults and prevention strategies to help the older male population maintain a healthy sexual life.
BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):802. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-802 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"Approximately one third of MSM in the study reported to live with a woman or have been married to a woman. The high rates of marriage to a woman or having both female and male sexual partners concurrently among Chinese MSM might be due to the pressure from society and family . To avoid the pressure, MSM might engage in heterosexual behaviors to keep the secret homosexual preferences and practices, which may increases the spreading of HIV/AIDS to their female partners and further to the general Chinese population (as shown in our results, statistical difference is not found among marriage status, which further demonstrated that marriage was an umbrella that the homosexual preferences and practices hide under). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM) is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources.
A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353) of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province.
Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time) in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago). However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils) also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6%) among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%), publicity material (51.0%) and internet (48.7%). Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002), medical staff (P = 0.0007), publicity material (P = 0.005) and sexual partner (P = 0.02). Press (P = 0.04) and book (P = 0.0003) were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time), while medical staff (P = 0.005) and publicity material (P = 0.04) is associated with moderate rate of condom use (condom use often).
Although the prevalence of HIV infection is low among MSM in Heilongjiang province, the situation that the risk behaviors were frequent in the population is alarming. The study suggests that some strategies like condom use and education intervention are practical approaches and need to be strengthened.
BMC Public Health 05/2010; 10(1):250. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-10-250 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"The same survey found syphilis prevalence to be 24% among men who have sex with men recruited from clinics, 21% among men who have sex with men recruited from saunas and 2.4% among men who have sex with men recruited from bars. Although these data may not be generalisable, they are certainly worrying, particularly as reported condom use is low, with less than half reporting consistent use (Choi et al. 2004; Lau et al. 2008; Liu et al. 2006; Zhang et al. 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper explores the HIV risk context of migrant men who have sex with men, or tongzhi, in Shenzhen, China. Findings from 42 qualitative interviews indicate that respondents are living within a complex risk environment, characterised by the realities of migration and a 'weak ties', virtual men who have sex with men community, which offers little emotional support but many opportunities for sexual engagement. Male sex work has proliferated in Shenzhen, with respondents informally participating in a type of buy-sell circuit. Respondents' portrayal of their environment and conflicts were underscored by three interacting elements: sexual freedom, migration and traditional Chinese values. The confluence of these factors, and how they may influence risk prioritisation in a multi-risk environment, is explored.
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