Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme that plays an important role in the production of prostaglandins. Numerous studies have demonstrated increased levels of COX-2 in human cancers of different types. It is thought that COX-2 may be involved in the development and progression of malignant tumours. However, data on the changes in COX-2 expression during the development and progression of human melanoma are relatively limited. Moreover, the results reported by different groups disagree to a large extent. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether COX-2 protein might be considered a potential molecular marker of melanoma progression. The expression of COX-2 was determined immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of 64 human melanocytic skin tumours (17 naevi, 36 primary cutaneous melanomas and 11 lymph node melanoma metastases, with six pairs of primary and metastatic lesions obtained from the same patients). It was found that the expression level of COX-2 was dependent on both the stage and histopathological type of the melanoma. Collectively, our data indicate that changes in the expression level of COX-2 are correlated with the development and progression of human melanoma, and imply that the COX-2 protein may be considered a potential prognostic and predictive marker in malignant melanoma.
"In a study of Becker et al. (2009), COX-2 was found in 95 % of melanoma revealing a significant correlation between immunohistochemical staining intensity and Breslow index. Kuzbicki et al. (2006) reported a coherency between COX-2 expression and development as well as progression of human melanoma. Thus, COX-2 was suggested to be a potential prognostic and predictive marker. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the most malignant type of all skin neoplasms. Its worldwide incidence has steadily increased during the past decades, suggesting a probable melanoma 'epidemic'. Although current clinical, morphologic, and histopathologic methods provide insights into disease behavior and outcome, melanoma is still an unpredictable disease. Once in an advanced stage, it remains a disastrous affliction with scarce therapeutic options. Therefore, significant efforts need to be made in finding informative biomarkers or surrogate markers that could aid or improve early diagnosis of melanoma, its correct staging, the discrimination of other pathological conditions as well as indicate patients' prognosis or the most appropriate therapeutic regimes. Ideally these markers are secreted into body fluids and easily amenable to the design of non-invasive clinical tests. A critical view on the current debate on serologic protein markers, e.g., lactate dehydrogenase, tyrosinase, and melanoma inhibiting activity, and some selected non-protein markers, e.g., 5-S-cysteinyl-dopa and circulating nucleic acids, will be offered and novel innovative approaches currently being explored will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the S100 family of calcium binding proteins that is more and more emerging as a potentially important group of both molecular key players and biomarkers in the etiology, progression, manifestation, and therapy of neoplastic disorders, including malignant melanoma. Notably, S100B and, possibly, other S100 proteins like S100A4 are assumed to fulfill requirements which make them strong biomarker candidates in melanoma. Moreover, S100 proteins receive attention as possible targets of therapeutic intervention moving closer to clinical impact.
"However, NSAIDs may inhibit cancer through various COXindependent pathways as well (Marx, 2001; Elwood et al., 2009). This could be of particular importance in CM, as NSAIDs inhibit the growth of CM cell lines independent of COX-2 (Vogt et al., 2001; Xu, 2002; Chiu et al., 2005; Bundscherer et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2008), and COX-2 is not consistently expressed in CM (Denkert et al., 2001; Vogt et al., 2001; Goulet et al., 2003; Nettelbeck et al., 2003; Kuzbicki et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2008). Thus far, most of the epidemiological studies assessing the chemoprophylactic effects of NSAIDs on CM incidence focus "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case-control study investigates the potential chemoprophylactic properties of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM). Data were extracted from the Dutch PHARMO pharmacy database and the PALGA pathology database. Cases had a primary CM between 1991 and 2004, were >or=18 years, and were observed for 3 years in PHARMO before diagnosis. Controls were matched for date of birth, gender, and geographical region. NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acids (ASAs) were analyzed separately. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression, and the results were stratified across gender. A total of 1,318 CM cases and 6,786 controls were eligible to enter the study. CM incidence was not significantly associated with ever ASA use (adjusted OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.76-1.12) or ever non-ASA NSAID use (adjusted OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.97-1.24). However, continuous use of low-dose ASAs was associated with a significant reduction of CM risk in women (adjusted OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.99) but not in men (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.69-1.47). A significant trend (P=0.04) from no use, non-continuous use to continuous use was observed in women. Continuous use of low-dose ASAs may be associated with a reduced incidence of CM in women, but not in men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 is a protein with a significant content of beta1,6-branched N-glycans. It is thought that enhanced expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 in tumour cells may promote invasion by influencing both adhesion to extracellular matrix and perhaps also binding to endothelial cells. The present study was aimed at examining levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 in human melanomas and benign pigmented lesions to evaluate whether this protein might be considered a potential molecular marker of melanoma progression. The expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 was for the first time determined immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens comprising 42 primary cutaneous melanomas, 15 lymph node melanoma metastases (11 correlated with primary tumours), three melanoma recurrences (correlated with both primary and metastatic melanomas), 27 nevi and four epithelial tumours (two seborrhoeic keratoses and two basal cell carcinomas). Our results demonstrate that development and progression of melanoma are associated with changes of the lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 level. The expression was strongest in melanoma recurrences and lymph node metastases, weaker in primary cutaneous melanomas and not detectable in melanocytes of pigmented nevi. Nodular melanomas expressed lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 at higher level than superficially spreading melanomas.
Melanoma Research 07/2006; 16(3):235-43. DOI:10.1097/01.cmr.0000215034.00318.7a · 2.28 Impact Factor
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