Very late results of esophagomyotomy for patients with achalasia: clinical, endoscopic, histologic, manometric, and acid reflux studies in 67 patients for a mean follow-up of 190 months.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Santiago, Chile.
Annals of Surgery (Impact Factor: 7.19). 02/2006; 243(2):196-203. DOI: 10.1097/01.sla.0000197469.12632.e0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Laparoscopic esophagomyotomy is the preferred approach to patients with achalasia of the esophagus, However, there are very few long-term follow-up studies (>10 years) in these patients.
To perform a very late subjective and objective follow-up in a group of 67 patients submitted to esophagomyotomy plus a partial antireflux surgery (Dor's technique).
In a prospective study that lasted 30 years, 67 patients submitted to surgery were divided into 3 groups: group I followed for 80 to 119 months (15 patients); group II, with follow-up of 120 to 239 months (35 patients); and group III, with follow-up more than 240 months (17 patients). They were submitted to clinical questionnaire, endoscopic evaluation, histologic analysis, radiologic studies, manometric determinations, and 24-hour pH studies late after surgery.
Three patients developed a squamous cell esophageal carcinoma 5, 7, and 15 years after surgery. At the late follow-up, Visick III and IV were seen in 7%, 23%, and 35%, according to the length of follow-up of each group. Endoscopic examination revealed a progressive nonsignificant deterioration of esophageal mucosa, histologic analysis distal to squamous-columnar junction showed a significant decrease of fundic mucosa in patients of group III, with increase of intestinal metaplasia, although not significant time. Lower esophageal sphincter showed a significant decrease of resting pressure 1 year after surgery, which remained similar at the late control. There was no return to peristaltic activity. Acid reflux measured by 24-hour pH studies revealed a progressive increase, and the follow-up was longer. Nine patients developed Barrett esophagus: 6 of them a short-segment and 3 a long-segment Barrett esophagus. Final clinical results in all 67 patients demonstrated excellent or good results in 73% of the cases, development of epidermoid carcinoma in 4.5%, and failures in 22.4% of the patients, mainly due to reflux esophagitis. Incomplete myotomy was seen in only 1 case.
In patients with achalasia submitted to esophagomyotomy and Dor's antireflux procedure, there is a progressive clinical deterioration of initially good results if a very long follow-up is performed (23 years after surgery), mainly due to an increase in pathologic acid reflux disease and the development of short- or long-segment Barrett esophagus.

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    Surgical Endoscopy 05/2014; 28(11). DOI:10.1007/s00464-014-3576-9 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Laparoscopic Heller cardiomyotomy (LHC) is standard therapy for achalasia. Traditionally, an antireflux procedure has accompanied the myotomy. This study was undertaken to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients undergoing myotomy with Toupet versus Dor fundoplication. In addition, we investigated overall patient satisfaction after LHC in the treatment of achalasia. Methods: One hundred thirty-five patients who underwent LHC over a 13-year period were identified for inclusion. Symptoms queried included dysphagia, heartburn, and bloating using the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life Scale and a second published scale for the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia symptoms. The patients' overall satisfaction after surgery was also rated. Data were compared on the basis of type of fundoplication. Symptom scores were analyzed using chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Results: Sixty-three patients completed the survey (47%). There were no perioperative deaths or reoperations. The mean length of stay was 2.8 days. The mean operative time for LHC with Toupet fundoplication was 137.3 +/- 30.91 minutes and for LHC with Dor fundoplication was 111.5 +/- 32.44 minutes (P = .006). There was no difference with respect to the incidence or severity of postoperative heartburn, dysphagia, or bloating. Overall satisfaction with Toupet fundoplication was 87.5% and with Dor fundoplication was 93.8% (P > .999). Conclusions: LHC with either Toupet or Dor fundoplication gave excellent patient satisfaction. Postoperative symptoms of heartburn and dysphagia were equivalent when comparing LHC with either antireflux procedure. Dor and Toupet fundoplication were found to have equivalent outcomes in the short term. We prefer Dor to Toupet fundoplication because of its decreased need for extensive dissection and better mucosal protection.
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