Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) affects the promoter activity of the alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor gene
ABSTRACT Keratoconus is a progressive disease that thins and scars the cornea. In keratoconus corneas, levels of degradative enzymes, including lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) and cathepsin B, are elevated, and those of inhibitors alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) and alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M) are reduced. The present study explored the possible involvement in keratoconus of Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6), a transcription factor previously described to be essential for the integrity of the corneal epithelium. The transcript and proteins level of KLF6 and its action in regulating the genes affected in keratoconus were examined in this study.
Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization were used to investigate the expression of KLF6 mRNA and protein in normal and keratoconus corneas. Modulation by KLF6 of the promoter activity of alpha1-PI, LAP, cathepsin B, and alpha2-M genes was studied after transient transfection of KLF6 expression plasmid into corneal epithelial cells using promoter-reporter gene assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to confirm the interactions between KLF6 and promoters of the genes affected in keratoconus.
A global increased expression of the transcription factor KLF6 in terms of mRNAs and proteins was observed in total cornea and/or the epithelium in a substantial number of the keratoconus specimens. The promoter activity of the human alpha1-PI gene was suppressed by expression of KLF6 in corneal epithelial cells. The ChIP assay confirmed a physical interaction between KLF6 and the alpha1-PI promoter.
Transcription factor KLF6 downregulates the alpha1-PI gene in corneal epithelial cells and may thereby be involved in keratoconus.
SourceAvailable from: Kira L Lathrop[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Klf5 plays an important role in maturation and maintenance of the mouse ocular surface. Here, we quantify WT and Klf5-conditional null (Klf5CN) corneal gene expression, identify Klf5-target genes and compare them with the previously identified Klf4-target genes to understand the molecular basis for non-redundant functions of Klf4 and Klf5 in the cornea. Postnatal day-11 (PN11) and PN56 WT and Klf5CN corneal transcriptomes were quantified by microarrays to compare gene expression in maturing WT corneas, identify Klf5-target genes, and compare corneal Klf4- and Klf5-target genes. Whole-mount corneal immunofluorescent staining was employed to examine CD45+ cell influx and neovascularization. Effect of Klf5 on expression of desmosomal components was studied by immunofluorescent staining and transient co-transfection assays. Expression of 714 and 753 genes was increased, and 299 and 210 genes decreased in PN11 and PN56 Klf5CN corneas, respectively, with 366 concordant increases and 72 concordant decreases. PN56 Klf5CN corneas shared 241 increases and 98 decreases with those previously described in Klf4CN corneas. Xenobiotic metabolism related pathways were enriched among genes decreased in Klf5CN corneas. Expression of angiogenesis and immune response-related genes was elevated, consistent with neovascularization and CD45+ cell influx in Klf5CN corneas. Expression of 1574 genes was increased and 1915 genes decreased in WT PN56 compared with PN11 corneas. Expression of ECM-associated genes decreased, while that of solute carrier family members increased in WT PN56 compared with PN11 corneas. Dsg1a, Dsg1b and Dsp were down-regulated in Klf5CN corneas and their corresponding promoter activities were stimulated by Klf5 in transient co-transfection assays. Differences between PN11 and PN56 corneal Klf5-target genes reveal dynamic changes in functions of Klf5 during corneal maturation. Klf5 contributes to corneal epithelial homeostasis by regulating the expression of desmosomal components. Klf4- and Klf5-target genes are largely distinct, consistent with their non-redundant roles in the mouse cornea.PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e44771. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044771 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ocular surface-a continuous epithelial surface with regional specializations including the surface and glandular epithelia of the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal and meibomian glands connected by the overlying tear film-plays a central role in vision. Molecular and cellular events involved in embryonic development, postnatal maturation, and maintenance of the ocular surface are precisely regulated at the level of gene expression by a well-coordinated network of transcription factors. A thorough appreciation of the biological characteristics of the ocular surface in terms of its gene expression profiles and their regulation provides us with a valuable insight into the pathophysiology of various blinding disorders that disrupt the normal development, maturation, and/or maintenance of the ocular surface. This paper summarizes the current status of our knowledge related to the ocular surface development and gene expression and the contribution of different transcription factors to this process.Journal of Ophthalmology 02/2013; 2013:103947. DOI:10.1155/2013/103947 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds and ulcers, keratitis, endophthalmitis, age-related macular degeneration, Sorsby fundus dystrophy, loss of nerve cells and photoreceptors during optic neuritis both in vivo and in vitro models. Protease-inhibitors have been extensively studied, rather than proteases, because they may represent a therapeutic approach for some ocular diseases. The protease-inhibitors mainly involved in the onset of the above-mentioned ocular pathologies are: α2-macroglobulin, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP), maspin, SERPINA3K, SERPINB13, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and calpeptin. This review is focused on the several characteristics of dysregulation of this system and, particularly, on a possible role of proteases and protease-inhibitors in molecular remodeling that may lead to some ocular diseases. Recently, researchers have even hypothesized a possible therapeutic effect of the protease-inhibitors in the treatment of injured eye in animal models.Molecules 12/2014; 19(12):1-7. DOI:10.3390/molecules191220557 · 2.10 Impact Factor