Outcomes after supratherapeutic escitalopram ingestions.
ABSTRACT Escitalopram (ESC) is a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used in the treatment of depression. There are limited data regarding accidental and intentional ESC exposure. We conducted a retrospective chart review of isolated ESC ingestions reported to our regional poison center during 2003-2004. Twenty-eight patients met inclusion criteria. The average patient age was 28.1 years (range 2-75 years) and the average amount of ESC ingested was 62.5 mg (range 5-300 mg from 19 cases). The most common formulation ingested was the 20-mg tablet. There were eight accidental ingestions and 20 intentional overdoses. Six of the eight accidental ingestions were observed at home with follow-up in 24 h, and no adverse outcomes were reported. The other two accidental overdoses were observed in the Emergency Department (ED) and discharged home with no adverse events reported. Nineteen of the intentional overdoses were observed in the ED for approximately 4-6 h and discharged home or to an inpatient psychiatry ward. One of the intentional overdose patients was admitted for persistent lethargy, but had a good outcome. ESC toxicity can theoretically be life threatening, but no patients in our series had adverse sequealae after accidental or intentional overdose.
- SourceAvailable from: Eiji Kirino[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Escitalopram (escitalopram oxalate; Cipralex(®), Lexapro(®)) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder. This drug exerts a highly selective, potent, and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the human serotonin transport. By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic nerve endings, this drug enhances the activity of serotonin in the central nervous system. Escitalopram also has allosteric activity. Moreover, the possibility of interacting with other drugs is considered low. This review covers randomized, controlled studies that enrolled adult patients with MDD to evaluate the efficacy of escitalopram based on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The results showed that escitalopram was superior to placebo, and nearly equal or superior to other SSRIs (eg, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline) and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (eg, duloxetine, sustained-release venlafaxine). In addition, with long-term administration, escitalopram has shown a preventive effect on MDD relapse and recurrence. Escitalopram also showed favorable tolerability, and associated adverse events were generally mild and temporary. Discontinuation symptoms were milder with escitalopram than with paroxetine. In view of the patient acceptability of escitalopram, based on both a meta-analysis and a pooled analysis, this drug was more favorable than other new antidepressants. The findings indicate that escitalopram achieved high continuity in antidepressant drug therapy.Patient Preference and Adherence 01/2012; 6:853-61. · 1.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular effects of escitalopram were examined in a large group of participants in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Escitalopram (n=3298) was administered at doses between 5 and 20mg/day. Patients were treated in acute (8-12 weeks) and long-term (24 weeks) studies. Assessment of cardiovascular safety included heart rate, blood pressure (BP), treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and electrocardiograms (ECGs). In the short-term, there was a small, but statistically significant 2 beats per minute decrease in heart rate with escitalopram compared with placebo. The difference compared to placebo in systolic or diastolic BP was not clinically or statistically significant. Valid ECG assessments at both baseline and last assessment were available for 2407 escitalopram patients and 1952 placebo patients. Escitalopram-placebo differences in mean changes in ECG values were not clinically meaningful. The mean difference to placebo in the corrected QT [Fridericia's (QTcF)] interval was 3.5ms (all escitalopram doses); 1.3ms (escitalopram 10mg) and 1.7ms (escitalopram 20mg) (p=0.2836 for 10 versus 20 mg). One out of 2407 escitalopram patients had a QTcF interval >500ms and a change from baseline >60ms. The incidence and types of cardiac-associated adverse events were similar between patients treated for 8-12 weeks with placebo (2.2%) or escitalopram (1.9%) and for 24 weeks with placebo (2.7%) or escitalopram (2.3%). Analyses of data from long-term studies and studies of the elderly showed similar results. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that escitalopram, like other SSRIs, has a statistically significant effect on heart rate and no clinically meaningful effect on ECG values, BP, with a placebo-level incidence of cardiac-associated adverse events.European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2013; · 3.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Seizures are a recognized complication of acute overdose with the racemic (1:1 ratio of R- and S-enantiomers) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant citalopram. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram (the therapeutically active S-enantiomer of citalopram) causes fewer seizures in overdose than citalopram at comparable doses of the S-enantiomer. Multicenter retrospective review of cases with citalopram and escitalopram overdose reported to German, Austrian, and Swiss Poisons Centers between 1997 and 2006. 316 citalopram and 63 escitalopram cases were analyzed. Somnolence, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, QT prolongation, and tremor occurred with similar frequency in both groups. There was a striking difference in the frequency of single and multiple seizures: 43 cases (13.5%) in the citalopram group and 1 case (1.6%) with a single seizure in the escitalopram group (p=0.0065). At comparable ingested doses of the S-enantiomer, the symptom profile for citalopram and escitalopram intoxications is similar except for seizures that occur more frequently in citalopram than in escitalopram poisoning.Clinical Toxicology 02/2010; 48(3):207-12. · 3.12 Impact Factor