Therapeutic drug monitoring and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy.
ABSTRACT Treatment with antiretroviral drugs such as the HIV protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors have contributed to the improvement of life of many HIV-infected patients in recent years, but antiretroviral therapy is not without problems. In some patients, treatment is not effective and suppression of viral replication is not achieved. Other patients experience toxicity and have to stop treatment or change to a less effective treatment. Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between plasma concentrations of the protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and viral suppression and toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring uses drug concentrations to individualize and optimise therapy by dosage adjustments and many clinicians have advocated for the use of therapeutic drug monitoring in HIV antiretroviral therapy. Evidence from a number of randomized clinical trials supports the use of therapeutic drug monitoring, but the studies have limitations and might not apply to all the antiretroviral drugs. However, the consensus is that certain patients are very likely to benefit from therapeutic drug monitoring. Additionally, the combination of therapeutic drug monitoring and genotypic or phenotypic resistance testing might further improve antiretroviral therapy.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of indinavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children as part of a prospective, open, uncontrolled, multicenter study in The Netherlands. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children were monitored over 6 months of treatment with zidovudine (120 mg/m(2) every 8 h [q8h]), lamivudine (4 mg/kg of body weight q12h), and indinavir (33mg/kg of metabolic weight [MW] q8h). Four weeks after the start of treatment, the steady-state pharmacokinetics of indinavir were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. If patients had an indinavir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of below 10 or above 30 mg/liter. h, a dose increase or a dose reduction was made and pharmacokinetic measurements were repeated 4 weeks later. Nineteen patients started with the dose of 33 mg/kg of MW q8h. The median AUC (range) was 10.5 (2.8 to 51.0) mg/liter. h. The median AUC (range) in 17 children treated with 50 mg/kg of MW q8h was 20.6 (4.1 to 38.7) mg/liter. h. Finally, five patients had a dose increase to 67 mg/kg of MW q8h, resulting in a median AUC (range) of 36.6 (27.2 to 80.0) mg/liter. h. After 6 months of treatment, there were 11 children with an AUC of below 20 mg/liter. h, of whom 5 (45%) had a detectable viral load, while this was the case in none of the 11 children with an AUC of higher than 20 mg/liter. h. We conclude that the optimal dose of indinavir in children to obtain drug exposure similar to that observed in adult patients is 50 mg/kg of MW q8h, which approximates 600 mg/m(2) q8h. It would even be better to adjust the indinavir dose based on an AUC of greater than 20 mg/liter. h.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2001; 45(3):701-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using the erythromycin breath test (ERMBT), and to examine the relationship of the ERMBT to plasma concentrations of indinavir and nelfinavir. Prospective observational study. University infectious diseases clinic. Thirty-nine HIV-positive patients and 47 healthy controls. After the ERMBT in patients and controls, 25 patients received indinavir or nelfinavir. Compared with controls, ERMBT variability was significantly greater in HIV-positive patients, including a subset of 19 patients receiving no concurrent drugs reported to alter CYP3A4 activity. Correlation between the ERMBT and first-dose plasma indinavir concentrations nearly reached statistical significance (p=0.07). Variability in hepatic activity of CYP3A4 in HIV-positive patients may be greater than in controls and may explain some between-subject variability in plasma concentrations of indinavir. However, clearance mechanisms for protease inhibitors are complex, and if it is important to assess systemic exposure, the ERMBT is not a substitute for direct measurement of plasma concentrations.Pharmacotherapy 09/2000; 20(8):898-907. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Observations from early clinical pharmacology studies of amprenavir, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that is highly bound to human plasma proteins (approximately 90%), showed the single-dose pharmacokinetics of amprenavir to be variable between and within individuals. A cross-study analysis of various demographic, laboratory, and clinical covariates was therefore performed. Differences in amprenavir pharmacokinetics could be due to variable concentrations in alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG), the predominant plasma protein to which amprenavir binds. Therefore, AAG was considered an important factor to study since the literature suggested that AAG levels vary by race, age, and weight and following trauma or infection, including HIV disease. Pooled data from three single-dose studies analyzed by stepwise linear regression indicated that AAG concentrations significantly correlated with age and race and that only AAG concentrations were a significant predictor of amprenavir apparent total clearance (CL/F). A significant inverse linear relationship was found between AAG and amprenavir CL/F. Compared to white subjects, black subjects had significantly lower AAG concentrations and therefore significantly higher amprenavir CL/F. Although AAG has a significant influence on the variability of total drug pharmacokinetics, unbound, or free, drug concentrations are not affected by AAG concentrations. Incorrect conclusions could be drawn on the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs if AAG concentration is not included in the analysis.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2001; 45(3):852-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor