Incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea before and after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.
Bone Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.54). 04/2006; 37(5):517-21. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705269
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and discomfort for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT). There are multiple causes of diarrhea in patients undergoing transplantation including antineoplastic chemotherapy, antimicrobials and infection, including Clostridium difficile as the most common pathogen involved. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) 1 week before and 30 days after APBSCT, and to identify risk factors for the development of CDAD including diagnosis. Two hundred and forty-two patients underwent APBSCT for multiple myeloma and lymphoma between October 1996 and October 2001 in two teaching hospitals. Diarrhea was reported in 157 (64.9%) subjects. One hundred and thirty-five out of the 157 subjects were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxin A. These subjects constitute the study group. The incidence of CDAD was 15%. Two thirds of the patients who developed CDAD had multiple myeloma and one third had lymphoma; this difference did not attain statistical significance. The use of cephalosporins (P = 0.03) and the use of intravenous vancomycin (P = 0.02) were the only identified risk factors associated with the development of CDAD. Patients treated with paclitaxel as part of the mobilization regimen had a lower incidence of CDAD than patients who received hematopoietic growth factor only (P = 0.01).

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at a high risk of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) given frequent hospitalizations, prolonged antibiotic usage and altered integrity of intestinal mucosa. The prevalence and trends of CDAD in HSCT patients have not been extensively studied. In this study, the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify CDAD in HSCT patients using a nationwide inpatient sample in the United States from 2000 to 2009. The prevalence of CDAD and in-hospital mortality in HSCT were investigated and compared to those without any transplants. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify if BMT and graft versus host disease (GVHD) were independently associated with mortality in CDAD patients. Of the 344,507 HSCT discharges, 4.7 % had CDAD. This was about 5 times higher when compared to non-transplant discharges. During engraftment admission, rates of CDAD were higher in allogenic group (8.4 vs. 5.7 %, p < 0.001). In subsequent admissions, those with GVHD had higher rates of CDAD (5.7 vs. 3.2 %, p < 0.001). On adjusted analysis in patients with CDAD, during engraftment admission, allogenic group had significantly higher mortality when compared with non-transplants (OR 3.7). Notably, there was no significant difference in mortality between patients with and without CDAD during the engraftment period for the allogeneic group. In subsequent admissions, there was higher mortality in those with GVHD (OR 4.8). Though the prevalence of CDAD in non-transplant population doubled (from 0.44 % in 2000 to 0.99 % in 2008), it has remained stable in HSCT patients (from 4.8 % in 2000 to 5.6 % in 2008). HSCT and GVHD are independently associated with CDAD though its presence does not affect mortality.
    International journal of hematology 04/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • Leukemia & lymphoma 04/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the rate of incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in hematologic and patients undergone stem cell transplant (HSCT) at HC-FMUSP, from January 2007 to June 2011, using two denominators 1,000 patient and 1,000 days of neutropenia and the risk factors associated with the severe form of the disease and death. The ELISA method (Ridascreen-Biopharm, Germany) for the detections of toxins A/B was used to identify C. difficile. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate potential factors associated with severe CDAD and death within 14 days after the diagnosis of CDAD, using multiple logistic regression. Sixty-six episodes were identified in 64 patients among 439 patients with diarrhea during the study period. CDA rate of incidence varied from 0.78 to 5.45 per 1,000 days of neutropenia and from 0.65 to 5.45 per 1,000 patient-days. The most common underlying disease was acute myeloid leukemia 30/64 (44%), 32/64 (46%) patients were neutropenic, 31/64 (45%) undergone allogeneic HSCT, 61/64 (88%) had previously used antibiotics and 9/64 (13%) have severe CDAD. Most of the patients (89%) received treatment with oral metronidazole and 19/64 (26%) died. The independent risk factors associated with death were the severe form of CDAD, and use of linezolid.
    Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 07/2014; 56(4):325-31. · 0.96 Impact Factor


Available from