[Biliary cystic neoplasm: biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma].
ABSTRACT Biliary cystic tumors, such as cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma, are rare cystic tumors of liver accounting for fewer than 5% of all intrahepatic cysts of biliary origin. Most biliary cystic tumors arise from intrahepatic bile duct and 10-20% arise from extrahepatic bile duct like common hepatic duct, common bile duct, and gallbladder. The first case report of biliary cystic neoplasm in Korea dated back to 1975 by Bae et al, and over 40 cases of cystadenoma and 35 cases of cystadenocarcinoma were reported since then. These tumors usually present in middle-aged women with a mean age of 50 years. Biliary cystadenomas are lined by single layer of cuboidal or columnar epithelium and are very often multilocular with septal or papillary foldings. Over 80% of cystadenoma have dense mesenchymal stroma composed of dense spindle cells, like ovary. The epithelial lining of cystadenocarcinoma exhibits cellular atypia, mitotic activity, and infiltrative growth, but part of lining epithelium retain the feature of cystadenoma, which support the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The size of tumors varies from 1.5 to 35 cm. Many patients are asymptomatic, except for the presence of palpable mass. When symptoms are present, they include epigastric or right upper quadrant pain or jaundice by enlarged mass. Biliary cystic tumor should be considered when a single or multilocular cystic lesion with papillary infoldings is detected in the liver by computed tomogram (CT) or ultrasound (US). Cystic wall and internal foldings can be seen enhanced by enhanced CT. US reveals a hypoechoic cystic mass with echogenic septation or papillary infoldings. Cystadenocarcinoma should be suspected when there is elevated mass or nodule in the wall or foldings, or thickened cystic wall on CT or US. But it is extremely difficult to differentiate between cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma by imaging alone. Increased tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, in serum or cystic fluid have been reported in biliary cystic tumor. But tumor markers cannot distinguish cystadenocarcinoma from cystadenoma or both from other cystic lesions of liver. Malignant cells are not usually recovered in patients with cystadenocarcinoma who underwent cystic fluid cytology before and during surgery. The treatment of choice is radical excision of the mass by means of lobectomy or wide tumor excision. Aspiration, marsupialization, and drainage must be avoided. Inadequate excision of both cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma may lead to recurrence. Prognosis after complete excision is excellent.
Article: Evaluation of hepatic cystic lesions[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and developed an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm to guide clinicians in characterising these lesions. Simple cysts are the most common cystic liver disease, and diagnosis is based on typical USG characteristics. Serodiagnostic tests and microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are invaluable in differentiating complicated cysts, echinococcosis and cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma when USG, CT and MRI show ambiguous findings. Therefore, serodiagnostic tests and CEUS reduce the need for invasive procedures. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as the presence of > 20 liver cysts and can present as two distinct genetic disorders: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PCLD). Although genetic testing for ADPKD and PCLD is possible, it is rarely performed because it does not affect the therapeutic management of PLD. USG screening of the liver and both kidneys combined with extensive family history taking are the cornerstone of diagnostic decision making in PLD. In conclusion, an amalgamation of these recent advances results in a diagnostic algorithm that facilitates evidence-based clinical decision making.World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2013; 19(23):3543-3554. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v19.i23.3543 · 2.43 Impact Factor
Article: [Hepatic cystadenoma.]Medicina Clínica 03/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biliary cystadenomas are predominately benign tumours that have a low malignant potential. We present a case of a 30-year-old female with a histopathological confirmation of a biliary cystadenoma following resection. The diagnosis was made pre-operatively by MRI using the hepatocyte-specific contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) (MultiHance; Bracco Diagnostics Inc., Princeton, NJ). At the biliary excretory phase, delayed phase images demonstrated communication between the multilocular cystic mass and the biliary tree, which helped to confirm the diagnosis of biliary cystadenoma. This highlights the beneficial use of hepatocyte-specific agents for their dual function as an extracellular agent and a hepatobiliary agent.The British journal of radiology 02/2012; 85(1010):e35-6. DOI:10.1259/bjr/52850720 · 1.53 Impact Factor