Spectrum of complex DNA damages depends on the incident radiation.
ABSTRACT Ionizing radiation induces bistranded clustered damages--two or more abasic sites, oxidized bases and strand breaks on opposite DNA strands within a few helical turns. Since clusters are refractory to repair and are potential sources of double-strand breaks (DSBs), they are potentially lethal and mutagenic. Although induction of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and isolated lesions has been studied extensively, little is known about the factors affecting induction of clusters other than DSBs. To determine whether the type of incident radiation could affect the yields or spectra of specific clusters, we irradiated genomic T7 DNA, a simple 40-kbp linear, blunt-ended molecule, with ion beams [iron (970 MeV/nucleon), carbon (293 MeV/nucleon), titanium (980 MeV/nucleon), silicon (586 MeV/nucleon), protons (1 GeV/nucleon)] or 100 kVp X rays and then quantified DSBs, Fpg-oxypurine clusters and Nfo-abasic clusters using gel electrophoresis, electronic imaging and number average length analysis. The yields (damages/Mbp Gy(-1)) of all damages decreased with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The relative frequencies of DSBs compared to abasic and oxybase clusters were higher for the charged particles-including the high-energy, low-LET protons-than for the ionizing photons.
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ABSTRACT: Clustered DNA damage is considered as a critical type of lesions induced by ionizing radiation, which can be converted into the fatal or strong mutagenic complex double strand breaks (DSBs) during damage processing in the cells. The new data show that high energy protons produce more potentially lethal DSBs than low LET radiation. In this study, plasmid DNA were used to investigate and re-evaluate the biological effects induced by the protons with the LET of ∼3.6 keV/μm at the molecular level in vitro, including single strand breaks (SSBs), DSBs, isolated and clustered base damages. The results of complex DNA damage detections indicated that protons at the given LET value induce about 1.6 fold more non-DSB clustered DNA damages than the prompt DSB. The DNA damage yields by protons were greater than that by γ-rays, specifically by 6 fold for the isolated type of DNA damage and 14 fold for the clustered damage. Furthermore, the spectrum of damages was also demonstrated to be depended on the radiation quality, with protons producing more DSBs relative to clusters than do γ-rays.Chinese Science Bulletin · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: Redox homeostasis is critical in regulating the fate and function of multipotent cells in the CNS. Here we investigated whether low dose charged particle irradiation could elicit oxidative stress in neural stem and precursor cells and whether radiation-induced changes in redox metabolism would coincide with cognitive impairment. Results: Low doses (< 1 Gy) of charged particles caused an acute and persistent oxidative stress. Early after (< 1week) irradiation, increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were generally dose responsive, but were less dependent on dose weeks to months thereafter. Exposure to ion fluences resulting in less than 1 ion traversal per cell was sufficient to elicit radiation-induced oxidative stress. Whole body irradiation triggered a compensatory response in the rodent brain that led to a significant increase in antioxidant capacity 2 weeks following exposure, before returning to background levels at week 4. Low dose irradiation was also found to significantly impair novel object recognition in mice 2 and 12 weeks following irradiation. Innovation: Data provides evidence that acute exposure of neural stem cells and the CNS to very low doses and fluences of charged particles can elicit a persisting oxidative stress lasting weeks to months that is associated with impaired cognition. Conclusions: Exposure to low doses of charged particles causes a persistent oxidative stress and cognitive impairment over protracted times. Data suggests that astronauts subjected to space radiation may develop a heightened risk for mission critical performance decrements in space, along with a risk of developing longer-term neurocognitive sequelae.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 06/2013; · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carbon ions ((12)C(6+)) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The assessment of tumour radiosensitivity would be particularly useful in optimizing the radiation dose during radiotherapy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential value of the neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in assessing (12)C(6+) radiosensitivity of tumour cells. The doses of (12)C(6+) and X-rays used in the present study were 2 and 4 Gy. The survival fraction, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and repair kinetics of DSB were assayed with clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma MEC-1 cells at the time points of 0.5, 4, 16 and 24 h after (12)C(6+) and X-rays irradiation. The survival fraction for 12C6+ irradiation was much more inhibited than for X-rays (p < 0.05) in all three tumour cell lines tested. Substantial amounts of residual damage, assessed by the neutral comet assay, were present after irradiation (p < 0.05). The highest residual damage was observed at 0.5 or 4 h, both for (12)C(6+) and X-ray irradiation. However, the residual damage in HeLa and MEC-1 cells was higher for (12)C(6+) than X-rays (p < 0.05). The strongest induction of γH2AX foci was observed after 30 min, for all three tumour cell lines (p < 0.01). The franction of γH2AX foci persisted for at least 24 h after (12)C6+ irradiation; in HeLa cells and MEC-1 was higher than after X-ray irradiation (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between the clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay were not statistically significant, except for some tumour cells at individual irradiation doses and types. Our study demonstrated that the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX foci assay could be used to assess the radiosensitivity of (12)C(6+) in human tumour cells.Radiology and Oncology 01/2013; 47(3):247-57. · 1.60 Impact Factor