Spectrum of complex DNA damages depends on the incident radiation.
ABSTRACT Ionizing radiation induces bistranded clustered damages--two or more abasic sites, oxidized bases and strand breaks on opposite DNA strands within a few helical turns. Since clusters are refractory to repair and are potential sources of double-strand breaks (DSBs), they are potentially lethal and mutagenic. Although induction of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and isolated lesions has been studied extensively, little is known about the factors affecting induction of clusters other than DSBs. To determine whether the type of incident radiation could affect the yields or spectra of specific clusters, we irradiated genomic T7 DNA, a simple 40-kbp linear, blunt-ended molecule, with ion beams [iron (970 MeV/nucleon), carbon (293 MeV/nucleon), titanium (980 MeV/nucleon), silicon (586 MeV/nucleon), protons (1 GeV/nucleon)] or 100 kVp X rays and then quantified DSBs, Fpg-oxypurine clusters and Nfo-abasic clusters using gel electrophoresis, electronic imaging and number average length analysis. The yields (damages/Mbp Gy(-1)) of all damages decreased with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The relative frequencies of DSBs compared to abasic and oxybase clusters were higher for the charged particles-including the high-energy, low-LET protons-than for the ionizing photons.
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ABSTRACT: The recognition of 'regular' and 'oxidized' sites of base loss (AP sites) in DNA by various AP endonucleases was compared. Model substrates with regular AP sites (resulting from mere hydrolysis of the glycosylic bond) were produced by damaging bacteriophage PM2 DNA by exposure to low pH; those with AP sites oxidized at the C-4'- and C-1'-position of the sugar moiety by exposure to Fe(III)-bleomycin in the presence of H2O2 and to Cu(II)-phenanthroline in the presence of H2O2 and ethanol, respectively. The results confirmed that AP sites-together with single-strand breaks-are indeed the predominant type of DNA modification in all three cases. For the recognition of 4'-oxidized AP sites, a 400-fold higher concentration of Escherichia coli exonuclease III and between 5-fold and 50-fold higher concentrations of bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V, E. coli endonuclease III and E. coli FPG protein were required than for the recognition of regular AP sites. In contrast, the recognition of 4'-oxidized AP sites by E. coli endonuclease IV was effected by 4-fold lower concentrations than needed for regular AP sites. 1'-oxidized AP sites (generated by activated Cu(II)-phenanthroline) were recognized by endonuclease IV and exonuclease III only slightly (3-fold and 13-fold, respectively) less efficiently than regular AP sites. In contrast, there was virtually no recognition of 1'-oxidized AP sites by the enzymes which cleave at the 3' side of AP sites (T4 endonuclease V, endonuclease III and FPG protein). The described differences were exploited for the analysis of the DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals, generated by ionizing radiation or Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate in the presence of H2O2. The results indicate that both regular and 1'-oxidized AP sites represent only minor fractions of the AP sites induced by hydroxyl radicals.Nucleic Acids Research 07/1994; 22(11):2010-5. · 8.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several oxidative DNA-damaging agents, including ionizing radiation, can generate multiply damaged sites in DNA. Among the postulated lesions are those with abasic sites located in close proximity on opposite strands. The repair of an abasic site requires strand scission by a repair endonuclease such as human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (Ape) or exonuclease III in Escherichia coli. Therefore, a potential consequence of the "repair" of bistranded abasic sites is the formation of double-strand breaks. To test this possibility and to investigate the influence of the relative distance between the two abasic sites and their orientation to each other, we prepared a series of oligonucleotide duplexes containing abasic sites at defined positions either directly opposite each other or separated by 1, 3, or 5 base pairs in the 5'- or 3'-direction. Analysis following Ape and exonuclease III treatment of these substrates indicated a variety of responses. In general, cleavage at abasic sites was slower in duplexes with paired lesions than in control duplexes with single lesions. Double-strand breaks were, however, readily generated in duplexes with abasic sites positioned 3' to each other. With the duplex containing abasic sites set 1 base pair apart, 5' to each other, both Ape and exonuclease III slowly cleaved the abasic site on one strand only and were unable to incise the other strand. With the duplex containing abasic sites set 3 base pairs apart, 5' to each other, Ape protein was unable to cleave either strand. These data suggest that closely positioned abasic sites could have several deleterious consequences in the cell. In addition, this approach has allowed us to map bases that make significant contact with the enzymes when acting on an abasic site on the opposite strand.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1997; 272(25):15650-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotides containing a unique alpha-deoxyadenosine or tetrahydrofuran (a model abasic site) were synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. Repair enzymes from Escherichia coli, including endonucleases III, IV, and VIII, exonuclease III, formamidopyrimidine N-glycosylase, and deoxyinosine 3'-endonuclease, as well as UV dimer N-glycosylases from T4 (den V) and Micrococcus luteus, were examined for their ability to recognize alpha-deoxyadenosine and tetrahydrofuran. In agreement with prior studies, a tetrahydrofuran-containing oligonucleotide was a substrate for endonuclease IV and exonuclease III, but not for the other repair enzymes. However, an oligonucleotide containing alpha-deoxyadenine was a substrate only for endonuclease IV. Competitive inhibition studies with both substrates confirmed that the activity recognizing alpha-deoxyadenine was endonuclease IV and not a possible contaminant in the endonuclease IV preparation. Using E. coli extracts, the activity that recognized alpha-deoxyadenine was dependent on nfo, the structural gene of endonuclease IV, further substantiating that endonuclease IV is the enzyme that recognized alpha-deoxyadenine. Kinetic measurements indicated that alpha-deoxyadenosine was as good a substrate for endonuclease IV as tetrahydrofuran; the Km and Vmax values for both substrates were similar. Using substrates that were labeled at either the 3'- or 5'-terminus, endonuclease IV was shown to hydrolyze the phosphodiester bond 5' to either alpha-deoxyadenosine or tetrahydrofuran, leaving the lesion, alpha-deoxyadenosine or tetrahydrofuran, on the 5'-terminus of the nicked site. The ability of endonuclease IV to recognize alpha-deoxyadenosine suggests that endonuclease IV is able to recognize a new class of DNA base lesions that is not recognized by other DNA N-glycosylases and AP endonucleases.Biochemistry 07/1994; 33(25):7842-7. · 3.38 Impact Factor