Reliability and validity of brief measures of oral health-related knowledge, fatalism, and self-efficacy in mothers of African American Children

School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
Pediatric dentistry (Impact Factor: 0.56). 11/2004; 27(5):422-8.
Source: PubMed


Low-income African American children experience high rates of dental caries compared to the general population. Knowledgeable and efficacious caregivers can play an important role in caries prevention. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate 4 brief measures reflecting mothers' potentially modifiable cognitions associated with African American children's oral health: (1) knowledge about appropriate bottle use (KBU); (2) knowledge about children's oral hygiene (KCOH); (3) oral health-related fatalism (OHF); and (4) oral health-related self-efficacy (OHSE).
Questions were selected based on reviews of the health promotion and oral health literature, with input from low-income African American caregivers of young children. Reliability and validity were evaluated using survey and dental examination data from 719 low-income African American mothers and their 1- to 5-year-old children.
Alpha reliabilities ranged from 0.76 to 0.91. KCOH was significantly associated with mothers' oral health perceptions and children's caries status. OHSE was significantly positively correlated with children's brushing frequency and with mothers' subjective perceptions of children's oral health, which was, in turn, significantly associated with children's caries status.
Results support the reliability and validity of the new measures. If confirmed by further research, these measures can be used to develop tailored educational and cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce oral health disparities.


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    • "The instruments included a newly revised version of the preand post-test Immigrant Women's Oral Health questionnaire and the Curriculum Satisfaction questionnaire. The Immigrant Women's Oral Health questionnaire were modified from those used in previous studies [Finlayson et al., 2005; Skeie et al., 2006], and had a Cronbach's α ranging from 0.72 to 0.84 that was piloted to 50 mother samples [Chen et al., 2014]. We held two expert meetings for the validation of the questionnaire. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous programs had not designed the culturally adequate Lay Health Advisor (LHA) oral health training curriculum for medically underserved population. We evaluated the effects of LHA training curriculum for addressing immigrant children's caries disparities in their access to dental care. We used a pre/post-test study design. Immigrant women were recruited from churches, schools, and immigrant centers in an urban area. Four training classes were held. Each training cycle lasted 15 consecutive weeks, consisting of 1 weekly 2-h training session for 12 weeks followed by a 3-week practicum. The curriculum included training in caries-related knowledge, oral hygiene demonstrations, teaching techniques, communication skills, and hands-on practice sessions. Thirty-seven LHA trainees completed the course and passed the post-training exam. The data were collected using self-report questionnaires. The level of oral health knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes toward oral hygiene were significantly increased after LHA training. There was a significant and over twofold increase in trainees' oral hygiene behaviors. An increase of >20% in LHA and their children's dental checkup was observed following training. After training, LHAs were more likely to have 3+ times of brushing teeth [Odds Ratio (OR) = 13.14], brushing teeth 3+ minutes (OR = 3.47), modified bass method use (OR = 30.60), dental flossing (OR = 4.56), fluoride toothpaste use (OR = 5.63) and child's dental visit (OR = 3.57). The cross-cultural training curriculum designed for immigrant women serving as LHAs was effective in improvement of oral hygiene behaviors and access to dental care. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Caries Research 01/2015; 49(2):147-56. DOI:10.1159/000363067 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    • "Self-efficacy was based on an instrument developed by Finlayson and colleagues [15]. It was measured using a 6-item scale, asking participants to indicate how confident they feel about their ability to brush their teeth at night when they were: (1) under a lot of stress; (2) depressed; (3) anxious; (4) feeling that they were too busy; (5) tired or; (6) worried about other things in their life. "
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    BMC Oral Health 04/2014; 14(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-14-29 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    • "The two secondary outcome measures for the study will be 1) number of preventive home oral health practices taken by mothers to prevent caries in their young children, and 2) the mother’s readiness to change. The first outcome will be assessed by a questionnaire completed by the mother, or with assistance from the County Counselor [28,29]; the second outcome, readiness to change, will be assessed using a maternal-report “Readiness Ladder” modified for this study [30]. "
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