Prevalence of Four Developmental Disabilities Among Children Aged 8 Years—Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program, 1996 and 2000

Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
MMWR. Surveillance summaries: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries / CDC 01/2006; 55(1):1-9.
Source: PubMed


In the United States, developmental disabilities affect approximately 17% of children aged <18 years, resulting in substantial financial and social costs.
1996 and 2000.
The Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP) monitors the occurrence of mental retardation, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, vision impairment, and autism spectrum disorders among children aged 8 years in the five-county metropolitan Atlanta area (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett). MADDSP uses a multiple source ascertainment methodology.
During 1996, the prevalence of mental retardation was 15.5 per 1,000 children aged 8 years; it decreased to 12.0 per 1,000 in 2000. The overall prevalence of cerebral palsy was 3.6 per 1,000 in 1996 and 3.1 per 1,000 in 2000. The prevalence of mental retardation and cerebral palsy was highest among males and black children. The prevalence of hearing loss was 1.4 per 1,000 in 1996 and 1.2 per 1,000 in 2000; the prevalence of vision impairment during 1996 was 1.4 per 1,000 and 1.2 per 1,000 in 2000. Minimal differences by study year were observed in the prevalence of all four disabilities when examined by sex, race, and severity.
The prevalence of these four select developmental disabilities in MADDSP was higher in 1996 than the annual average prevalence estimates for these disabilities during previous MADDSP study years (1991-1994) study years; the highest increase was observed among children with mental retardation. However, prevalence estimates during 2000 were more consistent with the estimates from the early 1990s. Data from additional surveillance years (2002 and beyond) are needed to determine if the prevalence for 1996 was an anomaly and to continue to monitor trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities over time.
MADDSP data will continue to be used to examine trends in the occurrence of these disabilities over time, facilitate the development and implementation of appropriate intervention programs, and provide a framework for conducting population-based etiologic studies.

8 Reads
  • Source
    • "Eye screening of children under five is conducted in many countries under varying names such as amblyopia screening program,[9-12] developmental checks for children[13] and strabismus detection in children of kindergarten.[3] However, the aim of such screening is common - to detect children with defective visual function and intervene at the earliest, to improve their quality of life. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify under-five-year-old children with vision or ocular defect in two provinces (Wilayats) of central Oman in 2006. Public health intervention study. Ocular examination in Manah Wilayat was conducted by nursing staff of the primary health center (PHC) and in Mudhaiby Wilayat was conducted by a trainee Omani optometrist. Abnormal sized eyeball, strabismus, nystagmus and white pupil were recorded. Visual acuity was tested by LOGMAR chart with Lea's symbols in children >2 years of age and preferential viewing was assessed by Lea's grating paddle or 'Hiding Heidi' picture in children </=2 years age. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS 12). Among 1,520 examined children, three children had absent eyeball bilaterally and three had unilaterally absent eyeball. Strabismus and nystagmus were detected in 44 (2.9%) and 18 (1.2%) children respectively. 'Hiding Heidi' test was normal in 530/537 (87%) of children. Distant vision reading was >/=0.32 in 386/448 (86.2%) eyes. Preferential looking test suggested that half of the children had defective vision (>2cpcm). Screening at '1-2 year' and '3-4 years' age group could significantly predict eye problems (P </= 0.001). Eye and vision screening of under-five kids helped in detection of eye problems in early stages. Instead of universal screening, high risk population or children of '3 to 4' years for vision and '1 to 2' years for ocular abnormalities is proposed The existing health services could not detect some children with eye problems and they were identified during such screening.
    Oman Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2010; 3(1):13-7. DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.60015
  • Source
    • "1985–1987 206 102,000 2.0 Slovenia Kavic & Perat, 1998 [39] 1981–1990 768 258,585 3.0 Northern Ireland Parks et al, 2001 [40] 1981–1993 982 445,464 2.20 Sweden: southern region Nordmark et al, 2001 [41] 1990–1993 167 65,514 2.2 US: metropolitan Atlanta Bhasin et al, 2006 [5] 1996–2000 268 80,815 5-year-olds 3.32 descriptive epidemiology of cp 255 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 per 1000 live births with little or no variation among western nations, although data from the Americas are sparse. Time trends in overall CP prevalence for the past 40 years are most notable for their stability, but a modest increase in prevalence probably occurred in the last decades of the twentieth century. European countries have pioneered the development of CP registries, and as a result, CP is a condition that is enumerated regularly in several parts of the world. The United States has no CP registries, although ongoing surveillance of CP, along with other developmental disabilities, is performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in metropolitan Atlanta.
    Clinics in Perinatology 07/2006; 33(2):251-67. DOI:10.1016/j.clp.2006.03.011 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
Show more