Urolithiasis/nephrolithiasis: what's it all about?
ABSTRACT Urolithiasis (urinary tract calculi or stones) and nephrolithiasis (kidney calculi or stones) are well-documented common occurrences in the general population of the United States. The etiology of this disorder is multifactorial and is strongly related to dietary lifestyle habits or practices. Proper management of calculi that occur along the urinary tract includes investigation into causative factors in an effort to prevent recurrences. Urinary calculi or stones are the most common cause of acute ureteral obstruction. Approximately 1 in 1,000 adults in the United States are hospitalized annually for treatment of urinary tract stones, resulting in medical costs of approximately dollar 2 billion per year (Ramello, Vitale, & Marangella, 2000; Tanagho & McAninch, 2004).