CNS viral infection diverts homing of antibody-secreting cells from lymphoid organs to the CNS.
ABSTRACT Neurotropic coronavirus infection of mice results in acute encephalomyelitis followed by viral persistence. Whereas cellular immunity controls acute infection, humoral immunity regulates central nervous system (CNS) persistence. Maintenance of serum Ab was correlated with tissue distribution of virus-specific Ab-secreting cells (ASC). Although virus-specific ASC declined in cervical lymph node and spleen after infectious virus clearance, virus-specific serum Ab was sustained at steady levels, with a delay in neutralizing Ab. Virus-specific ASC within the CNS peaked rapidly 1 wk after control of infectious virus and were retained throughout chronic infection, consistent with intrathecal Ab synthesis. Surprisingly, frequencies of ASC in the BM remained low and only increased gradually. Nevertheless, virus-specific ASC induced by peripheral infection localized to both spleen and BM. The data suggest that CNS infection provides strong stimuli to recruit ASC into the inflamed tissue through sustained up-regulation of the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10. Irrespective of Ag deprivation, CNS retention of ASC coincided with elevated BAFF expression and ongoing differentiation of class II+ to class II-CD138+CD19+ plasmablasts. These results confirm the CNS as a major ASC-supporting environment, even after resolution of viral infection and in the absence of chronic ongoing inflammation.
SourceAvailable from: Amanda K Huber[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The central nervous system (CNS), once viewed as an immune-privileged site protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is now known to be a dynamic immunological environment through which immune cells migrate to prevent and respond to events such as localized infection. During these responses, endogenous glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, become highly reactive and may secrete inflammatory mediators that regulate BBB permeability and recruit additional circulating immune cells. Here, we discuss the various roles played by astrocytes, microglia, and infiltrating immune cells during host immunity to non-tumor antigens in the CNS, focusing first on bacterial and viral infections, and then turning to responses directed against self-antigens in the setting of CNS autoimmunity.Frontiers in Oncology 11/2014; 4:328. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00328
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (YF-17D) was developed in the 1930s, yet little is known about the protective mechanisms underlying its efficiency. In this study, we analyzed the relative contribution of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to the vaccine-induced protection in a murine model of YF-17D infection. Using different strains of knockout mice, we found that CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and Abs are required for full clinical protection of vaccinated mice, whereas CD8(+) T cells are dispensable for long-term survival after intracerebral challenge. However, by analyzing the immune response inside the infected CNS, we observed an accelerated T cell influx into the brain after intracerebral challenge of vaccinated mice, and this T cell recruitment correlated with improved virus control in the brain. Using mice deficient in B cells we found that, in the absence of Abs, YF vaccination can still induce some antiviral protection, and in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells from these animals revealed a pivotal role for CD8(+) T cells in controlling virus replication in the absence of a humoral response. Finally, we demonstrated that effector CD8(+) T cells also contribute to viral control in the presence of circulating YF-specific Abs. To our knowledge, this is the first time that YF-specific CD8(+) T cells have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity in vivo. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite its importance in modulating HSV-2 pathogenesis, the nature of tissue-resident immune memory to HSV-2 is not completely understood. We used genital HSV-2 infection of guinea pigs to assess the type and location of HSV-specific memory cells at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells were readily detected in the spleen, bone marrow, vagina/cervix, lumbosacral sensory ganglia, and spinal cord of previously-infected animals. Memory B cells were detected primarily in the spleen and to a lesser extent in bone marrow but not in the genital tract or neural tissues suggesting that the HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells present at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection represented persisting populations of plasma cells. The antibody produced by these cells isolated from neural tissues of infected animals was functionally relevant and included antibodies specific for HSV-2 glycoproteins and HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies. A vigorous IFN-γ-secreting T cell response developed in the spleen as well as the sites of HSV-2 infection in the genital tract, lumbosacral ganglia and spinal cord following acute HSV-2 infection. Additionally, populations of HSV-specific tissue-resident memory T cells were maintained at these sites and were readily detected up to 150 days post HSV-2 infection. Unlike the persisting plasma cells, HSV-specific memory T cells were also detected in uterine tissue and cervicothoracic region of the spinal cord and at low levels in the cervicothoracic ganglia. Both HSV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ resident memory cell subsets were maintained long-term in the genital tract and sensory ganglia/spinal cord following HSV-2 infection. Together these data demonstrate the long-term maintenance of both humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive immune response at the sites of HSV-2 latency and virus shedding and highlight the utility of the guinea pig infection model to investigate tissue-resident memory in the setting of HSV-2 latency and spontaneous reactivation.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114652. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114652 · 3.53 Impact Factor