Meditation Therapy for Anxiety Disorders. (Review)
ABSTRACT Anxiety disorders are characterised by long term worry, tension, nervousness, fidgeting and symptoms of autonomic system hyperactivity. Meditation is an age-old self regulatory strategy which is gaining more interest in mental health and psychiatry. Meditation can reduce arousal state and may ameliorate anxiety symptoms in various anxiety conditions.
To investigate the effectiveness of meditation therapy in treating anxiety disorders
Electronic databases searched include CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References, complementary and alternative medicine specific databases, Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, and grey literature databases. Conference proceedings, book chapters and references were checked. Study authors and experts from religious/spiritual organisations were contacted.
Types of studies: Randomised controlled trials. Types of participants: patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders, with or without another comorbid psychiatric condition. Types of interventions: concentrative meditation or mindfulness meditation. Comparison conditions: one or combination of 1) pharmacological therapy 2) other psychological treatment 3) other methods of meditation 4) no intervention or waiting list. Types of outcome: 1) improvement in clinical anxiety scale 2) improvement in anxiety level specified by triallists, or global improvement 3) acceptability of treatment, adverse effects 4) dropout.
Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer, and the authors of the studies were contacted for further information.
Two randomised controlled studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Both studies were of moderate quality and used active control comparisons (another type of meditation, relaxation, biofeedback). Anti-anxiety drugs were used as standard treatment. The duration of trials ranged from 3 months (12 weeks) to 18 weeks. In one study transcendental meditation showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms and electromyography score comparable with electromyography-biofeedback and relaxation therapy. Another study compared Kundalini Yoga (KY), with Relaxation/Mindfulness Meditation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The overall dropout rate in both studies was high (33-44%). Neither study reported on adverse effects of meditation.
The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.
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- "Further systematic reviews have established that cognitive-behavioral approaches are effective in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in a variety of other populations including accident survivors, emergency responders and veterans, and survivors of sexual violence (Bisson and Andrew, 2007; Hunot et al., 2007; Regehr et al., 2012; Sherman, 1998). In addition, recent reviews have found that meditation and relaxation techniques are effective in reducing anxiety (Krisanaprakornkit et al., 2006) and a number of other mental and physical disorders (Chiesa and Serretti, 2009; Grossman et al., 2004). "
ABSTRACT: A significant proportion of physicians and medical trainees experience stress-related anxiety and burnout resulting in increased absenteeism and disability, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased rates of medical errors. A review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at addressing stress, anxiety, and burnout in physicians and medical trainees. Twelve studies involving 1034 participants were included in three meta-analyses. Cognitive, behavioral, and mindfulness interventions were associated with decreased symptoms of anxiety in physicians (standard differences in means [SDM], -1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.39 to -0.74) and medical students (SDM, -0.55; 95% CI, -0.74 to -0.36). Interventions incorporating psychoeducation, interpersonal communication, and mindfulness meditation were associated with decreased burnout in physicians (SDM, -0.38; 95% CI, -0.49 to -0.26). Results from this review and meta-analysis provide support that cognitive, behavioral, and mindfulness-based approaches are effective in reducing stress in medical students and practicing physicians. There is emerging evidence that these models may also contribute to lower levels of burnout in physicians.The Journal of nervous and mental disease 04/2014; DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000130 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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- "Brief training on mindfulness meditation or somatic relaxation reduces distress and improves positive mood states . Meditation is an age-old self-regulatory strategy that is gaining more interest in mental health counsel and psychiatry, as it can reduce arousal states and anxiety conditions . Meditation is considered as a type of mind-body complementary medicine. "
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Psychological studies have shown that brief period of mindfulness meditation significantly improves critical cognitive skills. But, there are no studies which have assessed the effects of Brahma Kumaris Rajayoga Meditation (BKRM) practice on positive thinking and happiness in life. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis is BKRM enhances positive thinking and that essential to attain higher levels of self-satisfaction and happiness in life. Material and Methods: This study is a cross sectional comparative study which was done between Rajayoga meditators and non-meditators. This study was conducted at BKRM Centres at Manipal and Udupi in Karnataka, India. Fifty subjects were selected for this study, which included those practising BKRM in their normal routine life (n=25) and non-meditators (n=25) who were aged 42.95+/15.29 years. Self-reported Oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ) was administered to all subjects and their happiness scores and status were assessed and compared. Items related to self-satisfaction in life were selected from the OHQ and compared between meditators and non-meditators. Participants completed self-reported OHQ, from which data of happiness status and self-satisfaction in relation to meditation duration and frequency were analyzed by descriptive statistics and test of hypothesis. Results: Mean happiness scores of BKRM were significantly higher (p<0.001) in meditators as compared to those in non-meditators. The number of meditators experiencing happiness status were significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with non-meditators. Additionally, meditators scored significantly higher on self-satisfaction items (p<0.001) as compared to non-meditators. There was no correlation between age and years of meditation practice with happiness score and self-satisfaction score. Conclusion: BKRM helps in significantly increasing self-satisfaction and happiness in life by enhancing positive thinking. Irrespective of age and years of short-term or long-term meditation practice, enhanced positive thinking increases self-satisfaction and happiness in life.10/2013; 7(10):2265-2267. DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5889.3488
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- "The following outcomes were associated with unclear effects following yoga intervention: anxiety [18, 19], arthritis [14, 23], asthma , body mass index , diabetes management [8, 16], muscular strength , epilepsy , hypertension , and in pain for the elderly population . Conclusions for menopause and carpal tunnel syndromes were split between positive and unclear effects. "
ABSTRACT: Objectives. Overview the quality, direction, and characteristics of yoga interventions for treatment of acute and chronic health conditions in adult populations. Methods. We searched for systematic reviews in 10 online databases, bibliographic references, and hand-searches in yoga-related journals. Included reviews satisfy Oxman criteria and specify yoga as a primary intervention in one or more randomized controlled trials for treatment in adults. The AMSTAR tool and GRADE approach evaluated the methodological quality of reviews and quality of evidence. Results. We identified 2202 titles, of which 41 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 26 systematic reviews satisfied inclusion criteria. Thirteen systematic reviews include quantitative data and six papers include meta-analysis. The quality of evidence is generally low. Sixteen different types of health conditions are included. Eleven reviews show tendency towards positive effects of yoga intervention, 15 reviews report unclear results, and no, reviews report adverse effects of yoga. Yoga appears most effective for reducing symptoms in anxiety, depression, and pain. Conclusion. Although the quality of systematic reviews is high, the quality of supporting evidence is low. Significant heterogeneity and variability in reporting interventions by type of yoga, settings, and population characteristics limit the generalizability of results.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2013; 2013:945895. DOI:10.1155/2013/945895 · 1.88 Impact Factor