REGgamma: a shortcut to destruction.
ABSTRACT Destruction of intact cellular proteins is largely orchestrated by ATP-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. The REG-20S proteasome, however, only degrades short peptides. In this issue of Cell, challenge this notion by revealing that the proteasomal activator REGgamma directs degradation of the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-3 by the 20S proteasome in an ATP- and ubiquitin-independent manner.
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ABSTRACT: . REGγ, a member of the 11S proteasome activators, has been shown to bind and activate the 20S proteasome to promote proteasome-dependent degradation of important regulatory proteins, such as SRC-3 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21, p16, and p19, in a ubiquitin- and ATP-independent manner. Furthermore, REGγ has been shown to facilitate the turnover of tumor suppressor p53 by promoting MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. The discovery that REGγ regulates cell-cycle regulators is consistent with previous studies where REGγ-deficient mice have shown retardation in body growth, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, indicating a potential role of REGγ in cancer development. Additionally, REGγ’s ability to promote viral protein degradation suggests its involvement in viral pathogenesis. This review presents an overview of the function of REGγ, a summary of the current literature, and insight into the possible biological function of REGγ relating to cancer, viral pathogenesis, and other diseases.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 12/2008; 65(24):3971-3980. DOI:10.1007/s00018-008-8291-z · 5.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein. A prominent hallmark of the disease is the presence of intracellular aggregates initiated by N-terminal huntingtin fragments containing the polyglutamine repeat, which recruit components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. While it is commonly thought that proteasomes are irreversibly sequestered into these aggregates leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the data on proteasomal impairment in Huntington's disease is contradictory. In addition, it has been suggested that proteasomes are unable to actually cleave polyglutamine sequences in vitro, thereby releasing aggregation-prone polyglutamine peptides in cells. Here, we discuss how the proteasome is involved in the various stages of polyglutamine aggregation in Huntington's disease, and how alterations in activity may improve clearance of mutant huntingtin fragments.09/2012; 2012:837015. DOI:10.1155/2012/837015
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ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) belongs to a nuclear receptor superfamily; members of which play key roles in the control of body metabolism principally by acting on adipose tissue. Ligands of PPARγ, such as thiazolidinediones, are widely used in the treatment of metabolic syndromes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although these drugs have potential benefits in the treatment of T2DM, they also cause unwanted side effects. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the transcriptional activity of PPARγ is of prime importance in the development of new selective drugs or drugs with fewer side effects. Recent advancements in molecular biology have made it possible to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of PPARγ in body homeostasis. The transcriptional activity of PPARγ is subject to regulation either by interacting proteins or by modification of the protein itself. New interacting partners of PPARγ with new functions are being unveiled. In addition, post-translational modification by various cellular signals contributes to fine-tuning of the transcriptional activities of PPARγ. In this review, we will summarize recent advancements in our understanding of the post-translational modifications of, and proteins interacting with, PPARγ, both of which affect its transcriptional activities in relation to adipogenesis.Yonsei medical journal 05/2013; 54(3):545-59. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.3.545 · 1.26 Impact Factor