The use of ultrasound in the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves: A comparison with maceration

Chemistry Institute, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP: 91501-960 RS, Brazil.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.32). 02/2007; 14(1):6-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2005.11.007
Source: PubMed


The objective of this work is to discuss the main parameters that influence the sonication extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves. For this purpose, the extraction time, solvent polarity, solvent volume, sample mass and particle size were evaluated. Results showed that the main variable affecting the extraction process was the solvent polarity. Though in a less extent, temperature and extraction time also demonstrated to be important parameters, while the other variables did not present a significant influence on the extraction yield. The extracts at the optimized condition were compared with those obtained by maceration, in terms of mass yield and chemical composition. The major compounds identified in the extracts were caffeine and palmitic acid. Some saturated hydrocarbons such as fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols, and theobromine were also identified in the fractions.

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    • "These results allowed us to conclude that the ultrasonic extraction method provides very important quantities of total polyphenols compared with the classical extraction method. This can be explained by the fact that the phenomenon of cavitation bubbles, which allow a very important mass transfer and easier penetration of the solvent to vegetal cells by causing the cells' disruption, and breaks which had given the release of cell content into the extraction medium.[27] These findings are in general agreement with other studies focused on extraction phenolic compounds and which found that ultrasound extracted the highest quantities of polyphenols than other classical methods such as maceration and Soxhlet.[28] "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris on wood surface physicochemical characteristics. Thus, the Lifshitz-van der Waals (), acid–base (surface tension components ΔGiwi, electron donor () and electron acceptor () parameters of untreated and treated wood were assessed using contact angle measurement. The main results showed that all T. vulgaris extracts are able to change wood surface properties. Indeed, the samples treated with the product obtained by maceration and ultrasound indicated the hydrophilic character (θw = 29.7 ± 0.3°, ΔGiwi = 17. 78 ± 0.48 mJ/m2 and θw = 18.2 ± 0.2°, ΔGiwi = 30.62 ± 0.31 mJ/m2) respectively, and had less contact angle values than that of untreated wood (θw = 86.0 ± 0.2°). In addition, this treatment has made the wood more donor ( = 44.76 ± 0.3 mJ/m2 and = 53.80 ± 0.3 mJ/m2) than the electron acceptor compared to sample control ( = 2.03 ± 0.04 mJ/m2). Finally, the effect of the extract obtained by ultrasound was found to be more important and significant than those recovered by classical extraction.
    Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 06/2014; 28(19). DOI:10.1080/01694243.2014.929197 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    • "In line with the present results, Jacques et al. (2007) showed that UAE was more effective than the maceration method in the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves. Also, several other studies have verified that UAE could be used as a useful method for extraction Fig. 1 "
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    ABSTRACT: Comparing the effect of Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different intensities vs. maceration as a traditional method in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), flavonoid content (TF) as well as oil stability index, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of both Achillea biebersteinii and Achillea wilhelmsii was aimed. Aerial parts of A. biebersteinii and A. wilhelmsii were extracted by maceration and UAE method at 40%, 70% and 100% high intensities using methanol 80% v/v as solvent. There was a significant association between the ultrasound intensities and extraction yield of dried extracts, phenolics and flavonoids in both tested species. A. biebersteinii yielded higher amounts of dried extracts, phenolics, flavonoids, radical scavenging activity and reducing power comparing to A. wilhelmsii. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity for both Achillea species extracted by UAE method was improved comparing to maceration. Evaluation of the oil stability index (OSI) using Rancimat test indicated that UAE method improves the stability of the oil enriched by A. biebersteinii extract more comparing to A. wilhelmsii. HPLC results showed that five major phenolic compounds were Gallic acid, P-coumaric acid, Caffeic acid, Ferulic acid and Chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, a higher antibacterial activity was observed from A. biebersteinii extracted by UAE method at different intensities in front of maceration extracts on tested microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and different strains of resistant Staphylococcus aureus) comparing to A. wilhelmsii. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that UAE method had a remarkable impact on the surface morphology of the glands and extraction of phytochemicals of Achillea extracts compare to maceration.
    Industrial Crops and Products 04/2014; 55:163–172. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.01.044 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    • "The efficiency of extraction was also found to increase with an increase in temperature , ultrasonic power, and sonication time. Jacques et al. (2007) pointed out that the ultrasonic treatment resulted in improved extraction of caffeine and palmitic acid from leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. "
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    ABSTRACT: The demand for convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives, has spurred the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Increasing number of recent publications have demonstrated the potential of this technology in food processing. A combination of ultrasound with pressure and/or heat is a promising alternative for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, novel techniques like thermosonication, manosonication, and manothermosonication may be a more relevant energy-efficient processing alternative for the food industry in times to come. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. In addition to discussing the effects of ultrasound on foods, this review covers various areas that have been identified as having great potential for future development. It has been realized that ultrasound has much to offer to the food industry such as inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, filtration, homogenization, meat tenderization, oxidation, sterilization, etc., including efficiency enhancement of various operations and online detection of contaminants in foods. Selected practical examples in the food industry have been presented and discussed. A brief account of the challenges in adopting this technology for industrial development has also been included.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 09/2011; 51(8):705-22. DOI:10.1080/10408391003770583 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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