To investigate the relationship between tea consumption, biliary tract cancers and gallstone disease.
A population-based case-control study was conducted in urban Shanghai from 1 June 1997 to 31 May 2001 involving interviews with 627 new cases of biliary tract cancers (including 368 cases of gallbladder cancer, 191 cases of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and 68 cases of cancer of the ampulla of Vater) aged 35 to 74 years and 959 population controls frequency-matched to cases by gender and age in five-year group. 1037 patients of gallstone disease were selected from the same hospital. All subjects were interviewed in person by trained interviewers by use of a structured questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
Compared with tea non-drinkers, current tea consumption was inversely associated with risk of gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic bile duct cancer and gallstone disease among females with OR of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.34-0.96), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.27-1.03) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.51-0.99), respectively. OR declined with younger age at initiation of tea drinking and with longer duration of tea consumption (P for trend < 0.05). Among males, the corresponding OR were mostly below one, although not statistically significant.
Tea consumption may decrease the risk of cancers of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct among females. The protective effect appears to be independent of gallstone disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary tract cancers are relatively rare but fatal tumors. Apart from a close link with gallstones and cholangitis, risk factors for biliary tract cancer are obscure. Chronic liver conditions, including liver cirrhosis, have been linked to a higher risk of biliary tract cancer. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we investigated the relationships of a history of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis as well as a family history of liver cancer with biliary tract cancer risk. The study included 627 patients with biliary tract cancers (368 gallbladder, 191 bile duct and 68 ampulla of Vater), 1,037 patients with biliary stones (774 gallbladder stones and 263 bile duct stones) and 959 healthy subjects randomly selected from the population. Bile duct cancer was associated with self-reports of chronic liver conditions, including a history of chronic hepatitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 0.9-4.4), liver cirrhosis (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.9-11.7) and a family history of primary liver cancer (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.9). The excess risk persisted after adjustment for gallstones and were more pronounced among subjects without gallstones (OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.3-20.0 and OR = 4.9, 95% 2.0-12.2, respectively). History of liver conditions was also associated with an excess of biliary stones (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). No association was found for cancers of the gallbladder and ampulla of Vater. A history of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis may be risk factors for extraheptic bile duct cancer. Given that chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of liver disease in China, serologic markers of HBV need to be measured in future studies to examine the link between HBV and bile duct cancer.
International Journal of Cancer 05/2007; 120(9):1981-5. DOI:10.1002/ijc.22375 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women.
We investigated the association of regular tea intake (≥3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers.
We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models.
After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non-alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ≥150 g tea/mo (∼2-3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers.
In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2012; 96(5):1056-63. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.111.031419 · 6.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous epidemiological studies investigating the association between tea consumption and the risk of gallbladder cancer have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of all available studies. A search was conducted through Pubmed, Embase, Chinese Biomedical literature Database and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database to identify relevant studies on tea consumption and the risk of gallbladder cancer. A random-effects model was used to calculate the overall combined risk estimates. Six studies (4 case-control and 2 cohort studies), involving a total of 753 patients and 115,349 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. The overall combined odds ratio (OR) for tea consumption and gallbladder cancer was 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-1.12, P=0.13]. Similar results were obtained for the high or moderate tea consumption vs. the low/non-consumption groups. However, our meta-analysis identified a significant association between tea consumption and reduced gallbladder cancer risk in women (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81, P=0.008), but not in men (OR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.12-1.59, P=0.21). Therefore, the results of the present meta-analysis suggest that, according to the currently available epidemiological studies, tea consumption may reduce the risk of gallbladder cancer in women, but not in men. Further epidemiological studies are required to determine the association between tea consumption and the risk of gallbladder cancer.
Molecular and Clinical Oncology 01/2015; 3(3). DOI:10.3892/mco.2015.489
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