CD4+ T cells contribute to postischemic liver injury in mice by interacting with sinusoidal endothelium and platelets.
ABSTRACT The mechanisms by which T cells contribute to the hepatic inflammation during antigen-independent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) are not fully understood. We analyzed the recruitment of T cells in the postischemic hepatic microcirculation in vivo and tested the hypothesis that T cells interact with platelets and activate sinusoidal endothelial cells, resulting in microvascular dysfunction followed by tissue injury. Using intravital videofluorescence microscopy, we show in mice that warm hepatic I/R (90/30-140 min) induces accumulation and transendothelial migration of CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells in sinusoids during early reperfusion. Simultaneous visualization of fluorescence-labeled CD4+ T cells and platelets showed that approximately 30% of all accumulated CD4+ T cells were colocalized with platelets, suggesting an interaction between both cell types. Although interactions of CD4+/CD40L-/- T cells with CD40L-/- platelets in wild-type mice were slightly reduced, they were almost absent if CD4+ T cells and platelets were from CD62P-/- mice. CD4 deficiency as well as CD40-CD40L and CD28-B7 disruption attenuated postischemic platelet adherence in the same manner as platelet inactivation with a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist and reduced neutrophil transmigration, sinusoidal perfusion failure, and transaminase activities. Treatment with an MHC class II antibody, however, did not affect I/R injury. In conclusion, we describe the type, kinetic, and microvascular localization of T cell recruitment in the postischemic liver. CD4+ T cells interact with platelets in postischemic sinusoids, and this interaction is mediated by platelet CD62P. CD4+ T cells activate endothelium, increase I/R-induced platelet adherence and neutrophil migration via CD40-CD40L and CD28-B7-dependent pathways, and aggravate microvascular/hepatocellular injury.
Article: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 contributes to parenchymal hemorrhage and necrosis in the remnant liver after extended hepatectomy in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) on the remnant liver after massive hepatectomy in the mouse. Age-matched, C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), MMP-9(-/-), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1(-/-) mice were used. The mice received 80%-partial hepatectomy (PH). Samples were obtained at 6 h after 80%-PH, and we used histology, immunohistochemical staining, western blotting analysis and zymography to investigate the effect of PH on MMP-9. The role of MMP-9 after PH was investigated using a monoclonal antibody and MMP inhibitor. We examined the remnant liver 6 h after 80%-PH and found that MMP-9 deficiency attenuated the formation of hemorrhage and necrosis. There were significantly fewer and smaller hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in MMP-9(-/-) remnant livers compared with WT and TIMP-1(-/-) livers (P < 0.01), with no difference between WT and TIMP-1(-/-) mice. Serum alanine aminotransaminase levels were significantly lower in MMP-9(-/-) mice compared with those in TIMP-1(-/-) mice (WT: 476 ± 83 IU/L, MMP-9(-/-): 392 ± 30 IU/L, TIMP-1(-/-): 673 ± 73 IU/L, P < 0.01). Western blotting and gelatin zymography demonstrated a lack of MMP-9 expression and activity in MMP-9(-/-) mice, which was in contrast to WT and TIMP-1(-/-) mice. No change in MMP-2 expression was observed in any of the study groups. Similar to MMP-9(-/-) mice, when WT mice were treated with MMP-9 monoclonal antibody or the synthetic inhibitor GM6001, hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions were significantly smaller and fewer than in control mice (P < 0.05). These results suggest that MMP-9 plays an important role in the development of parenchymal hemorrhage and necrosis in the small remnant liver. Successful MMP-9 inhibition attenuates the formation of hemorrhage and necrosis and might be a potential therapy to ameliorate liver injury after massive hepatectomy.World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2012; 18(19):2320-33. · 2.47 Impact Factor
Article: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α: Life and Death of Hepatocytes During Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine involved in a variety of disease pathologies, including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in transplantation. The interaction of TNF-α with its cognate receptor TNF receptor I (TNFRI) results in the activation of signal transduction pathways that regulate either cell survival or cell death. Hepatocytes express TNFRI and respond to TNF-α released by resident Kupffer cells as well as leukocytes that migrate to the liver during I/R injury. Upon binding TNF-α, the hepatocyte proliferates or undergoes apoptosis or necroptosis. The decision by the cell to commit to one path or the other is not understood. The damaged tissue exhibits cell death and hemorrhaging from the influx of immune mediators. TNF-α inhibitors ameliorate the injury in animal models, suggesting that lowering (but not eliminating) TNF-α levels shifts the balance of TNF-α toward its beneficial functions. We review TNF-α signal transduction pathways and the role of TNF-α in liver I/R injury. Because TNF-α plays an important role in hepatocyte proliferation, complete inhibition of TNF-α is not desirable in treating liver I/R injury. The strategy for developing pharmacological therapies may be the identification of specific intermediates in the TNF-α/TNFR1 signal transduction pathway and directed targeting of proapoptotic and pronecroptotic events.Ochsner Journal 01/2013; 13(1):119-30.
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ABSTRACT: Liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is caused by a heavily toothed network of interactions of cells of the immune system, cytokine production, and reduced microcirculatory blood flow in the liver. These complex networks are further elaborated by multiple intracellular pathways activated by cytokines, chemokines, and danger-associated molecular patterns. Furthermore, intracellular ionic disturbances and especially mitochondrial disorders play an important role leading to apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes in IR injury. Overall, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, found very early in IR injury, plays an important role in liver tissue damage at several points within these complex networks. Many contributors to IR injury are only incompletely understood so far. This paper tempts to give an overview of the different mechanisms involved in the formation of IR injury. Only by further elucidation of these complex mechanisms IR injury can be understood and possible therapeutic strategies can be improved or be developed.HPB Surgery 01/2012; 2012:176723.