c-Jun kinase mediates expression of VEGF induced at transcriptional level by Rac1 and Cdc42Hs but not by RhoA.
ABSTRACT Tumour angiogenesis is mediated by increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We have studied the mechanism by which endogenous activation of Rho oncoproteins regulates VEGF expression in COS-7 and NIH3T3 cells. We carried out transient and stable transfection with constitutively activated rhoA, rac1, and cdc42 mutants in COS-7 and NIH3T3 cells, respectively in the absence of external stimuli. Western blot and inmunohistochemistry assays of those cells revealed increased VEGF protein expression. Cotransfection with constitutively activated rhoA, rac1, and cdc42 mutants and a VEGF promoter-reporter construct showed an increase in VEGF promoter transcriptional activity induced by Rho oncoproteins in COS-7 and NIH3T3. c-Jun kinase had been described as a MAPK involved in Rho oncoproteins pathways. Interestingly, we found that c-Jun kinase chemical inhibition as well as transient transactivation assays using dominant negative c-Jun kinase mutant abolished the VEGF promoter transcriptional induction by Rac1 and Cdc42 but not by RhoA. These findings indicate that Rho oncoprotein endogenously activated regulates VEGF expression through a transcriptional mechanism, and that the c-Jun kinase activity is a mediator in the expression of VEGF induced by Rac1 and Cdc42 oncoproteins, but not of that induced by RhoA.
- Progress in molecular and subcellular biology 02/1999; 22:1-22.
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ABSTRACT: The phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent stimulator of Erk, leads to the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and its dissociation from eIF4E. In contrast to agonists such as insulin, this occurs independently of PKB activation. In this report, we investigate the mechanism by which TPA regulates 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Treatment of HEK293 cells with TPA was found to result in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Ser(64), Thr(69), and Thr(36/45). The TPA-stimulated phosphorylation of all these sites is sensitive to inhibitors of MEK and to the inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, indicating that inputs from both mTOR and MEK are required for the regulation of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation by TPA. Indeed, evidence is presented that mTOR may initially be required for the phosphorylation of Thr(45) in a priming step, which is necessary for the subsequent phosphorylation of Ser(64) and Thr(69) through an Erk-dependent pathway. Overexpression of constitutively active MEK in HEK293 cells resulted both in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Ser(64) and Thr(36/45) and its release from eIF4E. In this case, the phosphorylation of these sites was also blocked by inhibitors of MEK or by rapamycin. In conclusion, the Erk pathway, via mechanisms also requiring mTOR, regulates the phosphorylation of multiple sites in 4E-BP1 in vivo and this is sufficient for the release of 4E-BP1 from eIF4E.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2002; 277(13):11591-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a hypoxia-inducible direct angiogenic factor. Upregulation of VEGF is thought to mediate many of the angiogenic effects of growth factors that are not direct endothelial cell mitogens. Like VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is considered to induce angiogenesis by a direct effect on endothelial cells. This study investigated the possibility that bFGF may also act indirectly by regulating VEGF expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Incubation of confluent and quiescent cultures of rabbit VSMCs with bFGF caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in steady-state levels of VEGF mRNA, as analyzed by Northern blot hybridization. Exposure of VSMCs to a threshold hypoxic stimulus (2.5% O2) caused a modest increase in VEGF mRNA levels. However, the combination of 2.5% O2 with bFGF had a marked synergistic effect. This effect was specific for VEGF as hypoxia did not enhance bFGF-induced expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc. Synergistic upregulation of VEGF mRNA expression also was observed between hypoxia and TGF-beta 1. These results suggest that bFGF may promote angiogenesis both by a direct effect on endothelial cells and also indirectly by the upregulation of VEGF in VSMCs. The synergy demonstrated between hypoxia and either bFGF or TGF-beta 1 suggests that multiple diverse stimuli may interact via the upregulation of VEGF expression in VSMCs to amplify the angiogenic response.Circulation 08/1995; 92(1):11-4. · 15.20 Impact Factor