Effects of postural changes and removal of vestibular inputs on blood flow to the head of conscious felines
ABSTRACT Prior studies have shown that removal of vestibular inputs produces lability in blood pressure during orthostatic challenges (Holmes MJ, Cotter LA, Arendt HE, Cass SP, and Yates BJ. Brain Res 938: 62-72, 2002; Jian BJ, Cotter LA, Emanuel BA, Cass SP, and Yates BJ. J Appl Physiol 86: 1552-1560, 1999). Furthermore, these studies led to the prediction that the blood pressure instability results in susceptibility for orthostatic intolerance. The present experiments tested this hypothesis by recording common carotid blood flow (CCBF) in conscious cats during head-up tilts of 20, 40, and 60 degrees amplitudes, before and after the surgical elimination of labyrinthine inputs through a bilateral vestibular neurectomy. Before vestibular lesions in most animals, CCBF remained stable during head-up rotations. Unexpectedly, in five of six animals, the vestibular neurectomy resulted in a significant increase in baseline CCBF, particularly when the laboratory was illuminated; on average, basal blood flow measured when the animals were in the prone position was 41 +/- 17 (SE) % higher after the first week after the lesions. As a result, even when posturally related lability in CCBF occurred after removal of vestibular inputs, blood supply to the head was not lower than when labyrinthine inputs were present. These data suggest that vestibular influences on cardiovascular regulation are more complex than previously appreciated, because labyrinthine signals appear to participate in setting basal rates of blood flow to the head in addition to triggering dynamic changes in the circulation to compensate for orthostatic challenges.
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ABSTRACT: Vestibular nuclei have been identified as a uniform multifunctional structure in order to maintain physiological homeostasis, including the participation of renal sympathetic activity. In this study, the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe) of 10 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice were mapped retrograde using injections of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614. The virus, injected into the kidney, was specifically transported to the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe). We used a fluorescence immunohistochemistry to characterize the chemical neuroanatomical substrate of MVe innervating the kidney in the mouse. At five days after PRV-614 injection in the kidney, PRV-614 infected neurons were retrogradely labeled in MVeMC and MVePC; PRV-614/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) double-labeled neurons located predominantly in MVeMC and not in MVePC, whereas PRV-614/tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) neurons were not localized in MVeMC and MVePC. Our results revealed direct neuroanatomical evidence to identify catecholaminergic projections from the MVeMC to the kidney, suggesting that medial vestibulo-renal pathway may be catecholaminergic.
Article: Vestibulo-Sympathetic Responses[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence accumulated over 30 years, from experiments on animals and human subjects, has conclusively demonstrated that inputs from the vestibular otolith organs contribute to the control of blood pressure during movement and changes in posture. This review considers the effects of gravity on the body axis, and the consequences of postural changes on blood distribution in the body. It then separately considers findings collected in experiments on animals and human subjects demonstrating that the vestibular system regulates blood distribution in the body during movement. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes differ from responses triggered by unloading of cardiovascular receptors such as baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors, as they can be elicited before a change in blood distribution occurs in the body. Dissimilarities in the expression of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans and animals are also described. In particular, there is evidence from experiments in animals, but not humans, that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned, and differ between body regions. Results from neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in animals are discussed that identify the neurons that mediate vestibulosympathetic responses, which include cells in the caudal aspect of the vestibular nucleus complex, interneurons in the lateral medullary reticular formation, and bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Recent findings showing that cognition can modify the gain of vestibulosympathetic responses are also presented, and neural pathways that could mediate adaptive plasticity in the responses are proposed, including connections of the posterior cerebellar vermis with the vestibular nuclei and brainstem nuclei that regulate blood pressure. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:851-887, 2014.04/2014; 4(2):851-87. DOI:10.1002/cphy.c130041
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ABSTRACT: Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been widely used to improve the care of preterms and low birth weight infants. However, very little is known about cerebral hemodynamics responses in preterm infants during KMC intervention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in middle cerebral artery, before and after a 30 minute application of KMC in stable preterm infants.Methods It is a prospective, pre-post test without a control group study. CBF flow paremeters were measured with Doppler ultrasonography in one middle cerebral artery. Sixty preterm stable infants were assessed before and after 30 min KMC. CBF indices were assessed in different positions before KMC, forty neonates in supine position and 20 in vertical suspension (baby is held vertically away from the skin of his mother). Other dependent variables heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure and Spo2 were also studied before and after KMC.ResultsThe mean gestational age of the infants was (32¿±¿2 weeks), and mean birth weight was (2080¿±¿270 gm). Comparing CBF indices (Pulsatility index and Resistive index) before and after KMC has shown a significant decrease in both Pulsatility index (PI) and Resistive index (RI) after 30 min. KMC, the mean values were (2.0¿±¿0.43 vs 1.68¿±¿0.33 & 0.81¿±¿0.05 vs 0.76¿±¿0.06 respectively P¿<¿0.05*) with mean difference (0.32 & 95% CI 0.042-0.41 & 0.05 & 95% CI 0.04 to 0.06 respectively P¿<¿0.05*) and increase in end diastolic velocity & mean velocity 30 min of KMC (10.97¿±¿4.63 vs. 15.39¿±¿5.66 P¿<¿0.05*& 25.66¿±¿10.74 vs. 32.86¿±¿11.47 P¿<¿0.05* ) with mean difference (¿ 4.42 & 95% CI ¿5.67 to ¿3.18 and ¿7.21 & 95% CI - 9.41 to 5.00 respectively). These changes indicate improvement in CBF. No correlation has been found between CBF parameters and studied vital signs or SpO2.Conclusion Kangaroo mother care improves cerebral blood flow, thus it might influence the structure and promote development of the premature infant's brain.Italian Journal of Pediatrics 11/2014; 40(1):83. DOI:10.1186/s13052-014-0083-5