The evaluation of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on patient depression and self-esteem
ABSTRACT We evaluated the impact of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on the depression and self-esteem of clinically depressed patients. This longitudinal study involved 26 experimental group patients who received 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral group therapy and 25 comparison subjects. Two weeks before the study, immediately upon therapy completion, and 1 month later, all the participants underwent pretest, posttest, and follow-up, respectively. The experimental group patients experienced greater cognitive improvements (i.e., depression relief, self-esteem increase) as compared with the comparison group subjects. One month after therapy completion, the depressive symptoms and self-esteem of the experimental group patients remained slightly but significantly better than those of the comparison group subjects.
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ABSTRACT: The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance.NeuroToxicology 04/2008; 29(2):278-85. DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.11.006 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and, as such, clinical and research agendas are broad and involve many disciplines. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and bodyweight. Importantly, PCOS has unique interactions with the ever increasing obesity prevalence worldwide as obesity-induced insulin resistance significantly exacerbates all the features of PCOS. Furthermore, it has clinical implications across the lifespan and is relevant to related family members with an increased risk for metabolic conditions reported in first-degree relatives. Therapy should focus on both the short and long-term reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Given the aetiological role of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity on both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, multidisciplinary lifestyle improvement aimed at normalising insulin resistance, improving androgen status and aiding weight management is recognised as a crucial initial treatment strategy. Modest weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight has been demonstrated to improve many of the features of PCOS. Management should focus on support, education, addressing psychological factors and strongly emphasising healthy lifestyle with targeted medical therapy as required. Monitoring and management of long-term metabolic complications is also an important part of routine clinical care. Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines are needed to aid early diagnosis, appropriate investigation, regular screening and treatment of this common condition. Whilst reproductive features of PCOS are well recognised and are covered here, this review focuses primarily on the less appreciated cardiometabolic and psychological features of PCOS.BMC Medicine 06/2010; 8(1):41. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-8-41 · 7.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Due to the controversy over efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic depression, recently, there has been an increasingly tendency toward therapeutic methods based on the cultural and spiritual approaches. The aim of this research was to compare efficacy of spiritual integrated psychotherapy (SIPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on the intensity of depression symptoms and dysfunctional attitudes of patients with dysthymic disorder. This study had a mixed qualitative and quantitative design. In the first phase, SIPT model was prepared and, in the second phase, a double-blind random clinical trial was performed. Sixty-two patients with dysthymic disorder were selected from several centers include Nour and Alzahra Medical Center, Counseling Centers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Goldis in Isfahan. The participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group. The first group received 8 sessions treatment of SIPT, second groups also had 8 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy, which was specific to dysthymic disorder and third group were under antidepressant treatment. Beck depression inventory and dysfunctional attitudes scale were used to evaluate all the participants in four measurement stages. The data were analyzed using MANCOVA repeated measure method. The results revealed that SIPT had more efficacy than medication based on both scales (P < 0.01); however, it was not different from CBT. SIPT was more effective on the modification of dysfunctional attitudes compared with CBT and medication (P < 0.05). These findings supported the efficacy of psychotherapy enriched with cultural capacities and religious teachings.06/2013; 2:53. DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.114201