Antidepressant-like activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in mouse models of immobility tests.
ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Family: Fabaceae), popularly known as liquorice, on depression in mice using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The extract of G. glabra (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally for 7 successive days in separate groups of Swiss young male albino mice. The dose of 150 mg/kg of the extract significantly reduced the immobility times of mice in both FST and TST, without any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The efficacy of extract was found to be comparable to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.). Liquorice extract reversed reserpine-induced extension of immobility period of mice in FST and TST. Sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.; a selective D2 receptor antagonist) and prazosin (62.5 microg/kg i.p.; an alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist) significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. On the other hand, p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg i.p.; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) did not reverse antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract. This suggests that antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract seems to be mediated by increase of brain norepinephrine and dopamine, but not by increase of serotonin. Monoamine oxidase inhibiting effect of liquorice may be contributing favorably to the antidepressant-like activity. Thus, it is concluded that liquorice extract may possess an antidepressant-like effect.
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ABSTRACT: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2009; 2011:236341. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Metabolic profiling of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different geographical areas by ESI/MS/MS and determination of major metabolites by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) has been applied to the full characterization of saponins and phenolics in hydroalcoholic extracts of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Relative quantitative analyses of the samples with respect to the phenolic constituents and to a group of saponins related to glycyrrhizic acid were performed using LC-ESI/MS. For the saponin constituents, full scan LC-MS/MS fragmentation of the protonated (positive ion mode) or deprotonated (negative ion mode) molecular species generated diagnostic fragment ions that provided information concerning the triterpene skeleton and the number and nature of the substituents. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of glycyrrhizic acid, an LC-MS/MS method was developed in order to quantify the analyte in the liquorice root samples. Chinese G. glabra roots contained the highest levels of glycyrrhizic acid, followed by those from Italy (Calabria).Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 10/2010; 54(3):535-44. · 2.45 Impact Factor