Abnormally low plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) have been found in patients with cancer of the breast, lung, or pancreas.
A prospective study of patients with melanoma was conducted to assess the usefulness of CoQ10 plasma levels in predicting the risk of metastasis and the duration of the metastasis-free interval.
Between January 1997 and August 2004, plasma CoQ10 levels were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography in 117 consecutive melanoma patients without clinical or instrumental evidence of metastasis according to American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria and in 125 matched volunteers without clinically suspect pigmented lesions. Patients taking CoQ10 or cholesterol-lowering medications and those with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study. Multiple statistical methods were used to evaluate differences between patients and control subjects and between patients who did (32.5%) and did not (67.5%) develop metastases during follow-up.
CoQ10 levels were significantly lower in patients than in control subjects (t test: P < .0001) and in patients who developed metastases than in the metastasis-free subgroup (t test: P < .0001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that plasma CoQ10 levels were a significant predictor of metastasis (P = .0013). The odds ratio for metastatic disease in patients with CoQ10 levels that were less than 0.6 mg/L (the low-end value of the range measured in a normal population) was 7.9, and the metastasis-free interval was almost double in patients with CoQ10 levels 0.6 mg/L or higher (Kaplan-Meier analysis: P < .001).
A study with a larger sample, which is currently being recruited, and a longer follow-up will doubtlessly increase the statistical power and enable survival statistics to be obtained.
Analysis of our findings suggests that baseline plasma CoQ10 levels are a powerful and independent prognostic factor that can be used to estimate the risk for melanoma progression.
"In 117 melanoma patients without metastasis, plasma CoQ 10 levels were significantly lower than in control subjects and were associated with primary tumor thickness, with the highest CoQ 10 levels associated with thinner tumors . In addition, patients who developed metastases had lower CoQ 10 levels than those who did not, and subjects with lower baseline CoQ 10 levels had shorter disease-free intervals [Rusciani et al., 2006]. Low plasma levels of CoQ 10 have been demonstrated in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer [Palan et al., 2003]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a number of years, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular fractions and in blood plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis for supporting the clinical use of CoQ10. Also at the inner mitochondrial membrane level, CoQ10 is recognized as an obligatory co-factor for the function of uncoupling proteins and a modulator of the mitochondrial transition pore. Furthermore, recent data indicate that CoQ10 affects expression of genes involved in human cell signalling, metabolism, and transport and some of the effects of CoQ10 supplementation may be due to this property.
CoQ10 deficiencies are due to autosomal recessive mutations, mitochondrial diseases, ageing-related oxidative stress and carcinogenesis processes, and also statin treatment. Many neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer and muscular and cardiovascular diseases have been associated with low CoQ10 levels, as well as different ataxias and encephalomyopathies.
CoQ10 treatment does not cause serious adverse effects in humans and new formulations have been developed that increase CoQ10 absorption and tissue distribution. Oral CoQ10 is a frequent antioxidant strategy in many diseases that may provide a significant symptomatic benefit.
"Several authors have focused on effects of coenzyme Q10 on breast cancer patients generally supporting the idea of ameliorating effects of coenzyme Q10 in the disease [15,16] and . Alternatively, studies show that baseline plasma Coenzyme Q10 levels are a powerful and independent prognostic factor that can be used to estimate the risk for pancreatic and melanoma progression  and . Coenzyme Q10 effect on MMPs has not been documented previously. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 is a key molecule in cellular invasion and metastasis. Mitochondrial ROS has been established as a mediator of MMP activity. Coenzyme Q(10) contributes to intracellular ROS regulation. Coenzyme Q(10) beneficial effects on cancer are still in controversy but there are indications of Coenzyme Q(10) complementing effect on tamoxifen receiving breast cancer patients.
In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation of the effects of co-incubation of coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on intracellular H2O2 content and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity in MCF-7 cell line.
Our experiment was designed to assess the effect in a time and dose related manner. Gelatin zymography and Flowcytometric measurement of H2O2 by 2'7',-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate probe were employed. The results showed that both coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduce MMP-2 activity along with the pro-oxidant capacity of the MCF-7 cell in a dose proportionate manner.
Collectively, the present study highlights the significance of Coenzyme Q(10) effect on the cell invasion/metastasis effecter molecules.
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