Genomics of microRNA.
ABSTRACT Discovered just over a decade ago, microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as one of the major regulatory gene families in eukaryotic cells. Hundreds of miRNAs have been found in animals, plants and viruses, and there are certainly more to come. Through specific base-pairing with mRNAs, these tiny approximately 22-nt RNAs induce mRNA degradation or translational repression, or both. Because a miRNA can target numerous mRNAs, often in combination with other miRNAs, miRNAs operate highly complex regulatory networks. In this article, we summarize the current status of miRNA gene mining and miRNA expression profiling. We also review up-to-date knowledge of miRNA gene structure and the biogenesis mechanism. Our focus is on animal miRNAs.
SourceAvailable from: David L Adelson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MiRNAs are known to regulate gene expression and in the context of cancer have been shown to regulate metastasis, cell proliferation and cell death. In this report we describe potential miRNA regulatory roles with respect to induction of cell death by pharmacologic dose of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). Our previous work suggested that multiple pathways are involved in the induction of apoptosis, including interferon induced genes, cytokines, cy-toskeleton and cell adhesion and TP53 regulated genes. Using miRNA time course expression profiling of EGF treated A431 cells and coupling this to our previous gene expression and proteomic data, we have been able to implicate a number of additional miRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis. Specifically we have linked miR-134, miR-145, miR-146b-5p, miR-432 and miR-494 to the regulation of both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expressed as a function of EGF treatment. Whilst additional miRNAs were differentially expressed, these had the largest number of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic targets. We found 5 miRNAs previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and our results indicate that an additional 20 miRNAs are likely to be involved based on their correlated expression with targets. Certain targets were linked to multiple miRNAs, including PEG10, BTG1, ID1, IL32 and NCF2. Some miRNAs that target the interferon pathway were found to be down regulated, consistent with a novel layer of regulation of interferon pathway components downstream of JAK/ STAT. We have significantly expanded the repertoire of miRNAs that may regulate apopto-sis in cancer cells as a result of this work.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120337 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The elucidation of the mechanisms directing β-cell mass regeneration and maintenance is of interest since the deficit of β-cell mass contributes to diabetes onset and progression. We previously found that the level of the microRNA miR-338-3p is decreased in pancreatic islets from rodent models displaying insulin resistance and compensatory β-cell mass expansion, including pregnant rats, diet-induced obese mice and db/db mice. Transfection of rat islet cells with oligonucleotides that specifically block miR-338-3p activity increased the fraction of proliferating β-cells in vitro and promoted survival under pro-apoptotic conditions without affecting the capacity of β-cells to release insulin in response to glucose. Here, we evaluated the role of miR-338-3p in vivo by injecting mice with an Adeno-Associated viral (AAV) vector permitting specific sequestration of this microRNA in β-cells. We found that the AAV construct increased the fraction of proliferating β-cells confirming the data obtained in vitro. miR-338-3p is generated from an intron of the gene coding for Apoptosis-Associated Tyrosine Kinase (AATK). Similarly to miR-338-3p, we found that AATK is down-regulated in rat and human islets and INS832/13 β-cells in the presence of the cAMP-raising agents exendin-4, estradiol and a GPR30 agonist. Moreover, AATK expression is reduced in islets of insulin resistant animal models and selective silencing of AATK in INS832/13 cells by RNA interference promoted β-cell proliferation. The results point to a coordinated reduction of miR-338-3p and AATK under insulin resistance conditions and provide evidence for a cooperative action of the microRNA and its hosting gene in compensatory β-cell mass expansion.Molecular Endocrinology 03/2015; DOI:10.1210/me.2014-1299 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small endogenous non-coding RNA involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of specific mRNA targets. The first whole goat genome sequence became available in 2013, with few annotations. Our goal was to establish a list of the miRNA expressed in the mammary gland of lactating goats, thus enabling implementation of the goat miRNA repertoire and considerably enriching annotation of the goat genome. Here, we performed high throughput RNA sequencing on 10 lactating goat mammary glands. The bioinformatic detection of miRNA was carried out using miRDeep2 software. Three different methods were used to predict, quantify and annotate the sequenced reads. The first was a de novo approach based on the prediction of miRNA from the goat genome only. The second approach used bovine miRNA as an external reference whereas the last one used recently available goat miRNA. The three methods enabled the prediction and annotation of hundreds of miRNA, more than 95% were commonly identified. Using bovine miRNA, 1,178 distinct miRNA were detected, together with the annotation of 88 miRNA for which corresponding precursors could not be retrieved in the goat genome, and which were not detected using the de novo approach or with the use of goat miRNA. Each chromosomal coordinate of the precursors determined here were generated and depicted on a reference localisation map. Forty six goat miRNA clusters were also reported. The study revealed 263 precursors located in goat protein-coding genes, amongst which the location of 43 precursors was conserved between human, mouse and bovine, revealing potential new gene regulations in the goat mammary gland. Using the publicly available cattle QTL database, and cow precursors conserved in the goat and expressed in lactating mammary gland, 114 precursors were located within known QTL regions for milk production and composition. The results reported here represent the first major identification study on miRNA expressed in the goat mammary gland at peak lactation. The elements generated by this study will now be used as references to decipher the regulation of miRNA expression in the goat mammary gland and to clarify their involvement in the lactation process.BMC Genomics 04/2015; 16(1):285. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1471-y · 4.04 Impact Factor