The Dimerization Mechanism of LIS1 and its Implication for Proteins Containing the LisH Motif
ABSTRACT Miller-Dieker lissencephaly, or "smooth-brain" is a debilitating genetic developmental syndrome of the cerebral cortex, and is linked to mutations in the Lis1 gene. The LIS1 protein contains a so-called LisH motif at the N terminus, followed by a coiled-coil region and a seven WD-40 repeat forming beta-propeller structure. In vivo and in vitro, LIS1 is a dimer, and the dimerization is mediated by the N-terminal fragment and is essential for the protein's biological function. The recently determined crystal structure of the murine LIS1 N-terminal fragment encompassing residues 1-86 (N-LIS1) revealed that the LisH motif forms a tightly associated homodimer with a four-helix antiparallel bundle core, while the parallel coiled-coil situated downstream is stabilized by three canonical heptad repeats. This homodimer is uniquely asymmetric because of a distinct kink in one of the helices. Because the LisH motif is widespread among many proteins, some of which are implicated in human diseases, we investigated in detail the mechanism of N-LIS1 dimerization. We found that dimerization is dependent on both the LisH motif and the residues downstream of it, including the first few turns of the helix. We also have found that the coiled-coil does not contribute to dimerization, but instead is very labile and can adopt both supercoiled and helical conformations. These observations suggest that the presence of the LisH motif alone is not sufficient for high-affinity homodimerization and that other structural elements are likely to play an important role in this large family of proteins. The observed lability of the coiled-coil fragment in LIS1 is most likely of functional importance.
- SourceAvailable from: Ken Dawson-Scully
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- "Next is the SPRY domain (spore lysis A and the ryanodine receptor), which is further differentiated into less conserved region, PRY followed by the highly conserved SPRY domain . The LisH (Lissencephaly type-1 like homology) domain has been implicated in protein dimerization or oligomerization , . The CTLH (C-terminal to LisH) domain function is unknown. "
ABSTRACT: RanBP9 is known to act as a scaffolding protein bringing together a variety of cell surface receptors and intracellular targets thereby regulating functions as diverse as neurite and axonal outgrowth, cell morphology, cell proliferation, myelination, gonad development, myofibrillogenesis and migration of neuronal precursors. Though RanBP9 is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, brain is one of the organs with the highest expression levels of RanBP9. In the neurons, RanBP9 is localized mostly in the cytoplasm but also in the neurites and dendritic processes. We recently demonstrated that RanBP9 plays pathogenic role in Alzheimer's disease. To understand the role of RanBP9 in the brain, here we generated RanBP9 null mice by gene-trap based strategy. Most of Ran-/- mice die neonatally due to defects in the brain growth and development. The major defects include smaller cortical plate (CP), robustly enlarged lateral ventricles (LV) and reduced volume of hippocampus (HI). The lethal phenotype is due to a suckling defect as evidenced by lack of milk in the stomachs even several hours after parturition. The complex somatosensory system which is required for a behavior such as suckling appears to be compromised in Ran-/- mice due to under developed CP. Most importantly, RanBP9 phenotype is similar to ERK1/2 double knockout and the neural cell adhesion receptor, L1CAM knockout mice. Both ERK1 and L1CAM interact with RanBP9. Thus, RanBP9 appears to control brain growth and development through signaling mechanisms involving ERK1 and L1CAM receptor.PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66908. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066908 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "LIS1 is a protein which regulates dynein (dynein I/MAP1C) motor activity under high-load transport conditions by interacting with the motor domain and affecting the coordination of multiple dynein complexes . The LisH domain, which mediates oligomerization , is the second most common neighbor for the WD40 domain; however, a general functional classification has not been assigned to proteins with this particular domain architecture . "
ABSTRACT: In neurons, a highly regulated microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for many cellular functions. These include axonal transport, regional specialization and synaptic function. Given the critical roles of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in maintaining and regulating microtubule stability and dynamics, we sought to understand how this regulation is achieved. Here, we identify a novel LisH/WD40 repeat protein, tentatively named nemitin (neuronal enriched MAP interacting protein), as a potential regulator of MAP8-associated microtubule function. Based on expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, nemitin is enriched in the nervous system. Its protein expression is detected as early as embryonic day 11 and continues through adulthood. Interestingly, when expressed in non-neuronal cells, nemitin displays a diffuse pattern with puncta, although at the ultrastructural level it localizes along the microtubule network in vivo in sciatic nerves. These results suggest that the association of nemitin to microtubules may require an intermediary protein. Indeed, co-expression of nemitin with microtubule-associated protein 8 (MAP8) results in nemitin losing its diffuse pattern, instead decorating microtubules uniformly along with MAP8. Together, these results imply that nemitin may play an important role in regulating the neuronal cytoskeleton through an interaction with MAP8.PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e33094. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033094 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "Besides the DDB1 binding WD40 domain, the LIS1 Homology (LisH) motif is the only known protein interacting motif in the DCAF1 molecule (located between 1089 and 1115 amino acids). Crystal structural analysis shows that the LisH motif is a thermodynamically stable dimerization domain, which mediates microtubule association, protein interaction, and intracellular localization (Emes and Ponting, 2001; Kim et al., 2004; Gerlitz et al., 2005; Mateja et al., 2006). From the AGI protein database, we identified 30 unique genes encoding LisH motif– containing proteins, including TOPLESS (TPL)/WUS-Interacting Protein 1, TONNEAU1, and LEUNIG (LEU) (Emes and Ponting, 2001; Kim et al., 2004). "
ABSTRACT: The human DDB1-CUL4 ASSOCIATED FACTOR (DCAF) proteins have been reported to interact directly with UV-DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1) through the WDxR motif in their WD40 domain and function as substrate-recognition receptors for CULLIN4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here, we identified and characterized a homolog of human DCAF1/VprBP in Arabidopsis thaliana. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated the physical interaction between DCAF1 and DDB1 from Arabidopsis, which is likely mediated via the WD40 domain of DCAF1 that contains two WDxR motifs. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that DCAF1 associates with DDB1, RELATED TO UBIQUITIN-modified CUL4, and the COP9 signalosome in vivo but not with CULLIN-ASSOCIATED and NEDDYLATION-DISSOCIATED1, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), or the COP10-DET1-DDB1 complex, supporting the existence of a distinct Arabidopsis CUL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase, the CUL4-DDB1-DCAF1 complex. Transient expression of fluorescently tagged DCAF1, DDB1, and CUL4 in onion epidermal cells showed their colocalization in the nucleus, consistent with the notion that the CUL4-DDB1-DCAF1 complex functions as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of two T-DNA insertion mutants of DCAF1 showed that embryonic development of the dcaf1 homozygote is arrested at the globular stage, indicating that DCAF1 is essential for plant embryogenesis. Reducing the levels of DCAF1 leads to diverse developmental defects, implying that DCAF1 might be involved in multiple developmental pathways.The Plant Cell 07/2008; 20(6):1437-55. DOI:10.1105/tpc.108.058891 · 9.34 Impact Factor