Article

Substance abuse and dependence in prisoners: a systematic review

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.6). 03/2006; 101(2):181-91. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01316.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To review studies of the prevalence of substance abuse and dependence in prisoners on reception into custody.
A systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence in male and female prisoners on reception into prison was conducted. Only studies using standardized diagnostic criteria were included. Relevant information, such as mean age, gender and type of prisoner, was recorded for eligible studies. The prevalence estimates were compared with those from large cross-sectional studies of prevalence in prison populations.
Thirteen studies with a total of 7563 prisoners met the review criteria. There was substantial heterogeneity among the studies. The estimates of prevalence for alcohol abuse and dependence in male prisoners ranged from 18 to 30% and 10 to 24% in female prisoners. The prevalence estimates of drug abuse and dependence varied from 10 to 48% in male prisoners and 30 to 60% in female prisoners.
The prevalence of substance abuse and dependence, although highly variable, is typically many orders of magnitude higher in prisoners than the general population, particularly for women with drug problems. This highlights the need for screening for substance abuse and dependence at reception into prison, effective treatment while in custody, and follow-up on release. Specialist addiction services for prisoners have the potential to make a considerable impact.

2 Followers
 · 
277 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of the overlap between severe mental disorder and criminality tend to focus on prison populations rather than psychiatric populations. Our aims were to establish the prevalence of previous imprisonment among female psychiatric inpatients and test relationships between diagnoses, mortality and imprisonment. A nationwide cohort of 18-65-year-old women who had been hospitalised for psychiatric disorder between January 1983 and March 2008 was identified from a hospital records database and linked to the database of the Prison and Probation Administration of Iceland as well as the National Register of causes of death at Statistics Iceland from January 1985. Six thousand and ninety-four women had had at least one psychiatric hospitalisation, 102 of them had been imprisoned on 172 occasions between them, giving an imprisonment rate of 118 per 100,000 over the 24 year period of study. The crude imprisonment proportion was 1.7% during a 20-year follow-up period; it was at its peak (5%) among 18-30 year-olds at index admission. Substance use and personality disorders were the most common diagnoses associated with imprisonment. Mortality rates were not statistically different between those imprisoned and not (hazard ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval 0.5-3.5). Women admitted to a psychiatric hospital have higher rates of imprisonment than the general population. Because admission predated imprisonment in most cases, this may be seen as an opportunity for early intervention to reduce later criminality. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/cbm.1952 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article reports an evaluation of two cognitive skills programs (Enhanced Thinking Skills and Think First) with 801 women offenders serving community sentences in the English and Welsh Probation Service. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the reconviction rates at 1-year follow-up of offenders who completed the program, offenders who started but did not complete the program, and a comparison group that were not allocated to the program. Multivariate analysis showed that the completers did not have a significantly lower rate of reconviction than the comparison group. However, the non-completers had a significantly higher rate of reconviction than the comparison group. No differences were found in reconviction between the completers group and non-completers group. The implications of the findings for interventions with women offenders are discussed.
    Criminal Justice and Behavior 05/2015; 42(4):345-360. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
62 Downloads
Available from
Jun 6, 2014