Human Health Implications of Salmonella-Contaminated Natural Pet Treats and Raw Pet Food

Foodborne, Waterborne, and Zoonotic Infections Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 04/2006; 42(5):686-91. DOI: 10.1086/500211
Source: PubMed


Human salmonellosis occurs mainly as a result of handling or consuming contaminated food products, with a small percentage of cases being related to other, less well-defined exposures, such as contact with companion animals and natural pet treats. The increasing popularity of raw food diets for companion animals is another potential pet-associated source of Salmonella organisms; however, no confirmed cases of human salmonellosis have been associated with these diets. Pets that consume contaminated pet treats and raw food diets can be colonized with Salmonella organisms without exhibiting clinical signs, making them a possible hidden source of contamination in the household. Pet owners can reduce their risk of acquiring Salmonella organisms by not feeding natural pet treats and raw food diets to their pets, whereas individuals who investigate cases of salmonellosis or interpret surveillance data should be aware of these possible sources of Salmonella organisms.

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Available from: Rita Finley, Oct 01, 2015
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    • "Humans becoming infected with Salmonella through contact with pet foods and pet treats has become an increasing concern because household pets are extremely common in the United States. In 2002, it was estimated that 39% of households had a dog and 34% had a cat (Finley et al., 2006). The FDA has termed this direct route of exposure from handling animal feeds, pet foods, and pet treats as exposure from ''Direct-Human-Contact Feeds.'' "
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents the surveillance data from the Feed Contaminants Program (2002-2009) and Salmonella Assignment (2007-2009) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which monitor the trend of Salmonella contamination in animal feeds. A total of 2,058 samples were collected from complete animal feeds, feed ingredients, pet foods, pet treats, and supplements for pets in 2002-2009. These samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella. Those that were positive for Salmonella underwent serotyping and testing for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 2,058 samples, 257 were positive for Salmonella (12.5%). The results indicate a significant overall Salmonella reduction (p≤0.05) in animal feeds from 18.2% (187 samples tested) in 2002 to 8.0% (584 samples tested) in 2009. Among these samples, feed ingredients and pet foods/treats had the most significant reduction (p≤0.05). Of the 45 Salmonella serotypes identified, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Montevideo were the top two common serotypes (8.9%). Of the 257 Salmonella isolates obtained, 54 isolates (21%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The findings provide the animal feed industries with Salmonella prevalence information that can be used to address Salmonella contamination problems. Our findings can also be used to educate pet owners when handling pet foods and treats at home to prevent salmonellosis.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 06/2012; 9(8):692-8. DOI:10.1089/fpd.2011.1083 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "As the raw diet fed dogs represent such a large portion of the Salmonella positive dogs, this may account for the sparing effect. In addition, recent research suggests that contamination of rawhide and pig ear treats is decreasing, due to changes in the industry after the previously mentioned Salmonella outbreaks (Finley et al., 2006; Chiewchan et al., 2007), therefore, this could be one reason for the negative association between rawhide chews and Salmonella. The results concerning probiotics used in the previous 30 days are also unexpected, considering the expected function of probiotics. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine pet-related management factors that may be associated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in feces of pet dogs from volunteer households. From October 2005 until May 2006, 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Five consecutive daily fecal samples were collected from each dog and enrichment culture for Salmonella spp. was performed. A higher than expected number of the dogs (23.2%; 32/138) had at least one fecal sample positive for Salmonella, and 25% (21/84) of the households had at least one dog shedding Salmonella. Twelve serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were identified, with the predominant serotypes being Typhimurium (33.3%; 13/39), Kentucky (15.4%; 6/39), Brandenburg (15.4%; 6/39) and Heidelberg (12.8%; 5/39). Univariable logistic regression models were created with a random effect for household to account for clustering. Statistically significant risk factors for a dog testing positive included having contact with livestock, receiving a probiotic in the previous 30 days, feeding a commercial or homemade raw food diet, feeding raw meat and eggs, feeding a homemade cooked diet, and having more than one dog in the household. In two-variable models that controlled for feeding raw food, the non-dietary variables were no longer statistically significant. These results highlight the potential public health risk of including raw animal products in canine diets.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 02/2010; 58(2):140-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01320.x · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    • "; Clark et al . 2001 ) . The presence of Salmonella in pet chews could poten - tially infect the family dog or cat . Furthermore , the pet owner has to handle the chews when feeding the pet , and therefore is also at risk of exposure to Salmonella , partic - ularly if hands are not washed immediately afterwards ( Pitout et al . 2003 ; Anon 2006c ; Finley et al . 2006 ) . This report describes the prevalence of Salmonella isolated from imported and domestic pet chews in New Zealand . Salmonella isolated from pet chews were also geno - typed , and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from imported pet chews was assessed . Materials and Methods Sampling Three hundred samples , each o"
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    ABSTRACT: To survey the prevalence of Salmonella in imported and domestic pet chews for assessing their potential in introducing novel pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serotype clones into New Zealand, and as vehicles of salmonellosis in the domestic home environment. Three hundred samples, each of imported and domestic pet chews, were examined bacteriologically for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella cells in the pre-enrichment culture were concentrated by using Dynabeads, and then selective enrichment and plating were performed by a method described in the Bacteriological and Analytical Manual, USFDA. Salmonella was isolated from 16 (5.3%) of the imported and 20 (6.7%) of the domestic pet chews, but the prevalences of Salmonella in imported and domestic products were not significantly different. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disc diffusion methods. Salmonella Borreze has never been recorded earlier in New Zealand and was detected from Australian raw hide. Three isolates of Salmonella London were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin, and two isolates of Salmonella Infantis were resistant to nalidixic acid, one of which was also resistant to streptomycin. Novel pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella are being introduced into New Zealand through the import of pet chews. This indicates that pet chews are a potential source of exposure to Salmonella in the domestic home environment. Contaminated pet chews are potential sources of Salmonella infection for domestic pets, and humans are at risk of exposure either directly by contact through handling or inadvertently by cross-contamination of food or food-contact surfaces in home environments.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 11/2007; 103(4):803-10. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03303.x · 2.48 Impact Factor
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