Friction of conventional and self-ligating brackets using a 10 bracket model.
ABSTRACT The friction generated by various bracket-archwire combinations previously has been studied using in vitro testing models that included only one or three brackets. This study was performed using a specially designed apparatus that included 10 aligned brackets to compare the frictional resistance generated by conventional stainless steel brackets, self-ligating Damon SL II brackets and Time Plus brackets coupled with stainless steel, nickel-titanium and beta-titanium archwires. All brackets had a 0.022-inch slot, and five different sizes of orthodontic wire alloys used. Each bracket-archwire combination was tested 10 times, and each test was performed with a new bracket-wire sample. Time Plus self-ligating brackets generated significantly lower friction than both the Damon SL II self-ligating brackets and Victory brackets. However, the analysis of the various bracket-archwire combinations showed that Damon SL II brackets generated significantly lower friction than the other brackets when tested with round wires and significantly higher friction than Time Plus when tested with rectangular archwires. Beta-titanium archwires generated higher frictional resistances than the other archwires. All brackets showed higher frictional forces as the wire size increased. These findings suggest that the use of an in vitro testing model that includes 10 brackets can give additional interesting information about the frictional force of the various bracket-archwires combinations to the clinician and the research worker.
- SourceAvailable from: Maria Francesca Sfondrini[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study measured and compared the level of frictional resistance generated between stainless steel self-ligating brackets (Damon SL II, SDS Ormco, Glendora, Calif), polycarbonate self-ligating brackets (Oyster, Gestenco International, Göthenburg, Sweden), and conventional stainless steel brackets (Victory Series, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), and 3 different orthodontic wire alloys: stainless steel (Stainless Steel, SDS Ormco), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti, SDS Ormco), and beta-titanium (TMA, SDS Ormco). All brackets had a.022-in slot, whereas the orthodontic wire alloys were tested in 3 different sections:.016,.017 x.025, and.019 x 0.025 in. Each of the 27 bracket and archwire combinations was tested 10 times, and each test was performed with a new bracket-wire sample. Both static and kinetic friction were measured on a custom-designed apparatus. All data were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests). Stainless steel self-ligating brackets generated significantly lower static and kinetic frictional forces than both conventional stainless steel and polycarbonate self-ligating brackets, which showed no significant differences between them. Beta-titanium archwires had higher frictional resistances than stainless steel and nickel-titanium archwires. No significant differences were found between stainless steel and nickel-titanium archwires. All brackets showed higher static and kinetic frictional forces as the wire size increased.American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 11/2003; 124(4):395-402. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This investigation was designed to determine the effects of wire size and alloy on frictional force generated between bracket and wire during in vitro translatory displacement of bracket relative to wire. Stainless steel (SS), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr), nickel-titanium (NiTi), and beta-titanium (beta-Ti) wires of several sizes were tested in narrow single (0.050-inch), medium twin (0.130-inch) and wide twin (0.180-inch) stainless steel brackets in both 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots. The wires were ligated into the brackets with elastomeric ligatures. Bracket movement along the wire was implemented by means of a mechanical testing instrument, and frictional forces were measured by a compression cell and recorded on an X-Y recorder. beta-Ti and NiTi wires generated greater amounts of frictional forces than SS or Co-Cr wires did for most wire sizes. Increase in wire size generally resulted in increased bracket-wire friction. The wire size-alloy interaction on the magnitude of bracket-wire friction was statistically significant (p less than 0.005). With most wire sizes and alloys, narrow single brackets were associated with lower amounts of friction than wider brackets were. The levels of frictional forces in 0.018-inch brackets ranged from 49 gm with 0.016-inch SS wires in narrow single brackets to 336 gm with 0.017 x 0.025-inch beta-Ti wires in wide twin brackets. Similarly for 0.022-inch brackets, frictional forces ranged from 40 gm with 0.018-inch SS wires in narrow single brackets to 222 gm with 0.019 x 0.025-inch NiTi wires in wide twin brackets.American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 09/1990; 98(2):117-26. · 1.46 Impact Factor
- Journal of clinical orthodontics: JCO 03/1996; 30(2):78-84.