Apple procyanidin oligomers absorption in rats after oral administration: analysis of procyanidins in plasma using the porter method and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the absorption of apple procyanidins, namely, apple condensed tannins (ACTs), in rats using the Porter method and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The apple procyanidin concentrations in the rat plasma reached a maximum 2 h after administration and decreased thereafter. To investigate the limits of the absorption of apple procyanidins in the polymerization degree, we administered the procyanidin oligomer fraction, which was separated from ACT using normal-phase chromatography according to the degree of polymerization. Procyanidins from each dimer to pentamer group were detected in the plasma by the Porter method. Moreover, by the study using reconstituted procyanidins, polymeric procyanidins influenced the absorption of procyanidin oligomers. These results suggest that ACTs are absorbed and directly involved in physiological functions in the rats.
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ABSTRACT: Apple polyphenols (AP), which contain procyanidins as major components, have been reported to display potent antioxidant activity and several beneficial health effects. To investigate the protective effect of AP intake against murine cardiomyopathy caused by endogenous oxidative stress, we orally administered AP to heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)-deficient (H/M-Sod2-/-) mice [Nojiri et al., 2006]. Dietary AP significantly increased the survival of the mutant mice, extending their mean lifespan by 29%. Dietary AP also suppressed the progression of cardiac dilatation and fibrosis in the H/M-Sod2-/- mice. In vitro experiments revealed that AP treatment strongly suppressed the production of hydrogen peroxide induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C2C12 myoblast cells and endogenous superoxide production in Mn-SOD-deficient cells. Furthermore, dietary AP suppressed ROS production in Mn-SOD-deficient cardiomyocytes and oxidative DNA damage in vivo. These results indicate that dietary AP improved the survival and pathology of short-lived mice with cardiomyopathy by suppressing mitochondrial superoxide production.International Journal of Life Science and Medical Research. 09/2012; 2(3):46-51.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins. Peanut skin proanthocyanidins mainly consist of a subgroup called procyanidins. Peanut-based procyanidins contain oligomers of both type A and type B procyanidins. Recent studies have shown that peanut skin extracts exert protection against hepatic steatosis induced on rats fed with a high-fat diet. Studies have shown that proanthocyanidins protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The mechanism of CVD protection and hypolipidemic effect of peanut skin procyanidins has been gradually revealed in recent years. Due to the high molecular weight of procyanidins, they are not readily absorbed through the gut barrier. It is hypothesized that procyanidins exert their effect by inhibiting the absorption of dietary lipid and chylomicron secretion by enterocytes. In this review, we aim to highlight the hypolipidemic effects of peanut skin polyphenols and discuss the various molecular mechanisms, with which the polyphenols may exert the lipid-lowering function observed by weighing the absorption characteristics as well as gene expression mechanism responsible for lipid homeostasis.Journal of Medicinal Food 09/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis and currently infects approximately 170 million people worldwide. An infection by HCV causes high rates of chronic hepatitis (> 75%) and progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ultimately. HCV can be eliminated by a combination of pegylated α-interferon and the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin; however, this treatment is still associated with poor efficacy and tolerability and is often accompanied by serious side-effects. While some novel direct-acting antivirals against HCV have been developed recently, high medical costs limit the access to the therapy in cost-sensitive countries. To search for new natural anti-HCV agents, we screened local agricultural products for their suppressive activities against HCV replication using the HCV replicon cell system in vitro. We found a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA expression in the extracts of blueberry leaves and then identified oligomeric proanthocyanidin as the active ingredient. Further investigations into the action mechanism of oligomeric proanthocyanidin suggested that it is an inhibitor of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) such as hnRNP A2/B1. In this review, we presented an overview of functional foods and ingredients efficient for HCV infection, the chemical structural characteristics of oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and its action mechanism.World journal of hepatology. 12/2014; 6(12):870-9.