Apple procyanidin oligomers absorption in rats after oral administration: Analysis of procyanidins in plasma using the porter method and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the absorption of apple procyanidins, namely, apple condensed tannins (ACTs), in rats using the Porter method and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The apple procyanidin concentrations in the rat plasma reached a maximum 2 h after administration and decreased thereafter. To investigate the limits of the absorption of apple procyanidins in the polymerization degree, we administered the procyanidin oligomer fraction, which was separated from ACT using normal-phase chromatography according to the degree of polymerization. Procyanidins from each dimer to pentamer group were detected in the plasma by the Porter method. Moreover, by the study using reconstituted procyanidins, polymeric procyanidins influenced the absorption of procyanidin oligomers. These results suggest that ACTs are absorbed and directly involved in physiological functions in the rats.
SourceAvailable from: Jodi F Hedges01/2008; 28(5):377-402. DOI:10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v28.i5.20
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ABSTRACT: Proanthocyanidins are among the most abundant constituents in pine bark extracts (PBEs). This review summarizes medical research on PBEs from Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata, Pinus massoniana, and other less well-characterized species. The precise mechanisms of the important physiological functions of PBE components remain to be elucidated, but there is evidently great potential for the identification and development of novel antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer medicines. Although toxicological data for PBEs are limited, no serious adverse effects have been reported. PBEs may therefore have potential as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals and should be safe for use as food ingredients.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2015; 353(1):9-16. DOI:10.1124/jpet.114.220277 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis and currently infects approximately 170 million people worldwide. An infection by HCV causes high rates of chronic hepatitis (> 75%) and progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ultimately. HCV can be eliminated by a combination of pegylated α-interferon and the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin; however, this treatment is still associated with poor efficacy and tolerability and is often accompanied by serious side-effects. While some novel direct-acting antivirals against HCV have been developed recently, high medical costs limit the access to the therapy in cost-sensitive countries. To search for new natural anti-HCV agents, we screened local agricultural products for their suppressive activities against HCV replication using the HCV replicon cell system in vitro. We found a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA expression in the extracts of blueberry leaves and then identified oligomeric proanthocyanidin as the active ingredient. Further investigations into the action mechanism of oligomeric proanthocyanidin suggested that it is an inhibitor of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) such as hnRNP A2/B1. In this review, we presented an overview of functional foods and ingredients efficient for HCV infection, the chemical structural characteristics of oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and its action mechanism.