Asparagine 706 and glutamate 183 at the catalytic site of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase play critical but distinct roles in E2 states.
ABSTRACT Mutants with alteration to Asn(706) of the highly conserved (701)TGDGVND(707) motif in domain P of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase were analyzed for changes in transport cycle kinetics and binding of the inhibitors vanadate, BeF, AlF, and MgF. The fluorides likely mimic the phosphoryl group/P(i) in the respective ground, transition, and product states of phosphoenzyme hydrolysis (Danko, S., Yamasaki, K., Daiho, T., and Suzuki, H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 14991-14998). Binding of BeF, AlF, and MgF was also studied for mutant Glu(183) --> Ala, where the glutamate of the (181)TGES(184) motif in domain A is replaced. Mutations of Asn(706) and Glu(183) have in common that they dramatically impede the function of the enzyme in E2 states, but have little effect in E1. Contrary to the Glu(183) mutant, in which E2P slowly accumulates (Clausen, J. D., Vilsen, B., McIntosh, D. B., Einholm, A. P., and Andersen, J. P. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 2776-2781), E2P formation was not detectable with the Asn(706) mutants. Differential sensitivities of the mutants to inhibition by AlF, MgF, and BeF made it possible to distinguish different roles of Asn(706) and Glu(183). Hence, Asn(706) is less important than Glu(183) for gaining the transition state during E2P hydrolysis but plays critical roles in stabilization of E2P ground and E2.P(i) product states and in the major conformational changes associated with the Ca(2)E1P --> E2P and E2 --> Ca(2)E1 transitions, which seem to be facilitated by interaction of Asn(706) with domain A.
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ABSTRACT: Ion translocation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase depends on large movements of the A-domain, but the driving forces have yet to be defined. The A-domain is connected to the ion-binding membranous part of the protein through linker regions. We have determined the functional consequences of changing the length of the linker between the A-domain and transmembrane helix M3 ("A-M3 linker") by insertion and deletion mutagenesis at two sites. It was feasible to insert as many as 41 residues (polyglycine and glycine-proline loops) in the flexible region of the linker without loss of the ability to react with Ca(2+) and ATP and to form the phosphorylated Ca(2)E1P intermediate, but the rate of the energy-transducing conformational transition to E2P was reduced by >80%. Insertion of a smaller number of residues gave effects gradually increasing with the length of the insertion. Deletion of two residues at the same site, but not replacement with glycine, gave a similar reduction as the longest insertion. Insertion of one or three residues in another part of the A-M3 linker that forms an alpha-helix ("A3 helix") in E2/E2P conformations had even more profound effects on the ability of the enzyme to form E2P. These results demonstrate the importance of the length of the A-M3 linker and of the position and integrity of the A3 helix for stabilization of E2P and suggest that, during the normal enzyme cycle, strain of the A-M3 linker could contribute to destabilize the Ca(2)E1P state and thereby to drive the transition to E2P.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2009; 284(18):12258-65. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel couples glucose metabolism to insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. It comprises regulatory sulfonylurea receptor 1 and pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits. Binding and/or hydrolysis of Mg-nucleotides at the nucleotide-binding domains of sulfonylurea receptor 1 stimulates channel opening and leads to membrane hyperpolarization and inhibition of insulin secretion. We report here the first purification and functional characterization of sulfonylurea receptor 1. We also compared the ATPase activity of sulfonylurea receptor 1 with that of the isolated nucleotide-binding domains (fused to maltose-binding protein to improve solubility). Electron microscopy showed that nucleotide-binding domains purified as ring-like complexes corresponding to approximately 8 momomers. The ATPase activities expressed as maximal turnover rate [in nmol P(i).s(-1).(nmol protein)(-1)] were 0.03, 0.03, 0.13 and 0.08 for sulfonylurea receptor 1, nucleotide-binding domain 1, nucleotide-binding domain 2 and a mixture of nucleotide-binding domain 1 and nucleotide-binding domain 2, respectively. Corresponding K(m) values (in mm) were 0.1, 0.6, 0.65 and 0.56, respectively. Thus sulfonylurea receptor 1 has a lower K(m) than either of the isolated nucleotide-binding domains, and a lower maximal turnover rate than nucleotide-binding domain 2. Similar results were found with GTP, but the K(m) values were lower. Mutation of the Walker A lysine in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (K719A) or nucleotide-binding domain 2 (K1385M) inhibited the ATPase activity of sulfonylurea receptor 1 by 60% and 80%, respectively. Beryllium fluoride (K(i) 16 microm), but not MgADP, inhibited the ATPase activity of sulfonylurea receptor 1. In contrast, both MgADP and beryllium fluoride inhibited the ATPase activity of the nucleotide-binding domains. These data demonstrate that the ATPase activity of sulfonylurea receptor 1 differs from that of the isolated nucleotide-binding domains, suggesting that the transmembrane domains may influence the activity of the protein.FEBS Journal 08/2007; 274(14):3532-44. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The roles of Ser(72), Glu(90), and Lys(297) at the luminal ends of transmembrane helices M1, M2, and M4 of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase were examined by transient and steady-state kinetic analysis of mutants. The dependence on the luminal Ca(2+) concentration of phosphorylation by P(i) ("Ca(2+) gradient-dependent E2P formation") showed a reduction of the apparent affinity for luminal Ca(2+) in mutants with alanine or leucine replacement of Glu(90), whereas arginine replacement of Glu(90) or Ser(72) allowed E2P formation from P(i) even at luminal Ca(2+) concentrations much too small to support phosphorylation in wild type. The latter mutants further displayed a blocked dephosphorylation of E2P and an increased rate of conversion of the ADP-sensitive E1P phosphoenzyme intermediate to ADP-insensitive E2P as well as insensitivity of the E2.BeF(3)(-) complex to luminal Ca(2+). Altogether, these findings, supported by structural modeling, indicate that the E2P intermediate is stabilized in the mutants with arginine replacement of Glu(90) or Ser(72), because the positive charge of the arginine side chain mimics Ca(2+) occupying a luminally exposed low affinity Ca(2+) site of E2P, thus identifying an essential locus (a "leaving site") on the luminal Ca(2+) exit pathway. Mutants with alanine or leucine replacement of Glu(90) further displayed a marked slowing of the Ca(2+) binding transition as well as slowing of the dissociation of Ca(2+) from Ca(2)E1 back toward the cytoplasm, thus demonstrating that Glu(90) is also critical for the function of the cytoplasmically exposed Ca(2+) sites on the opposite side of the membrane relative to where Glu(90) is located.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2010; 285(27):20780-92. · 4.65 Impact Factor