UCHL-1 is not a Parkinson's disease susceptibility gene
ABSTRACT The UCHL-1 gene is widely cited as a susceptibility factor for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). The strongest evidence comes from a meta-analysis of small studies that reported the S18Y polymorphism as protective against PD, after pooling studies of white and Asian subjects. Here, we present data that challenge this association.
In a new large case-control study in white individuals (3,023 subjects), the S18Y variant was not protective against PD under any genetic model of inheritance. Similarly, a more powerful haplotype-tagging approach did not detect other associated variants.
Finally, in an updated S18Y-PD meta-analysis (6,594 subjects), no significant association was observed under additive, recessive, or dominant models (odds ratio = 1.00 [95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.33]; odds ratio = 1.01 [95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.35]; and odds ratio = 0.96 [95% confidence interval: 0.86-1.08], respectively), and a cumulative meta-analysis showed a trend toward a null effect.
Based on the current evidence, the UCHL-1 gene does not exhibit a protective effect in PD.
- SourceAvailable from: Masaaki Waragai[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Research on Parkinson's disease (PD) has made remarkable progress in recent decades, due largely to new genomic technologies, such as high throughput sequencing and microarray analyses. Since the discovery of a linkage of a missense mutation of the α-synuclein (αS) gene to a rare familial dominant form of PD in 1996, positional cloning and characterization of a number of familial PD risk factors have established a hypothesis that aggregation of αS may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, dozens of sensitizing alleles related to the disease have been identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-GWAS, contributing to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms of sporadic PD. Thus, the knowledge obtained from the association studies will be valuable for "the personal genome" of PD. Besides summarizing such progress, this paper focuses on the role of microRNAs in the field of PD research, since microRNAs might be promising as a biomarker and as a therapeutic reagent for PD. We further refer to a recent view that neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, coexist with metabolic disorders and are stimulated by type II diabetes, the most common disease among elderly populations. The development of genomic approaches may potentially contribute to therapeutic intervention for PD.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2014; 452(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.06.028 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized primarily by the selective death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. Although several genetic forms of PD have been identified, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying DA neuron loss in PD remain elusive. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression with fundamental roles in numerous biological processes. Although their role in PD pathogenesis is still a very active area of investigation, several seminal studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the roles these small non-coding RNAs play in the disease process. Among these are studies which have demonstrated specific miRNAs that target and down-regulate the expression of PD-related genes as well as those demonstrating a reciprocal relationship in which PD-related genes act to regulate miRNA processing machinery. Concurrently, a wealth of knowledge has become available regarding the molecular mechanisms that unify the underlying etiology of genetic and sporadic PD pathogenesis, including dysregulated protein quality control by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy pathway, activation of programmed cell death, mitochondrial damage and aberrant DA neurodevelopment and maintenance. Following a discussion of the interactions between PD-related genes and miRNAs, this review highlights those studies which have elucidated the roles of these pathways in PD pathogenesis. We highlight the potential of miRNAs to serve a critical regulatory role in the implicated disease pathways, given their capacity to modulate the expression of entire families of related genes. Although few studies have directly linked miRNA regulation of these pathways to PD, a strong foundation for investigation has been laid and this area holds promise to reveal novel therapeutic targets for PD.Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 11/2013; 6:40. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2013.00040
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ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that plays a regulatory role in targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. UCH-L1 is highly expressed in neurons and has been demonstrated to promote cell viability and maintain neuronal integrity. Reduced UCH-L1 levels have been observed in various neurodegenerative diseases, and expression of UCH-L1 can rescue synaptic dysfunction and memory deficits in Alzheimer's Disease model mice. However, the mechanisms regulating UCH-L1 expression have not been determined. In this study, we cloned a 1782 bp of the 5' flanking region of the human UCH-L1 gene and identified a 43 bp fragment containing the transcription start site as the minimal region necessary for promoter activity. Sequence analysis revealed several putative regulatory elements including NF-κB, NFAT, CREB, NRSF, YY1, AP1, and STAT in the UCH-L1 promoter. A functional NF-κB response element was identified in the UCH-L1 promoter region. Expression of NF-κB suppressed UCH-L1 gene transcription. In the RelA knockout system where NF-κB activity is ablated, UCH-L1 expression was significantly increased. Furthermore, activation of NF-κB signaling by the inflammatory stimulator lipopolysaccharide and TNFα resulted in a decrease of UCH-L1 gene expression by inhibiting its transcription. As NF-κB is an important signaling module in inflammatory response, our study suggests a possibility that inflammation might compromise neuronal functions via the interaction of NF-κB and UCH-L1. A better understanding of the NF-κB-regulated UCH-L1 transcription will provide insights to the role of inflammatory responses in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2011; 116(6):1160-70. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07172.x · 4.24 Impact Factor