Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes.
ABSTRACT The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual cycle. Pulmonary function tests were conducted pre- and post-exercise. The maximal percentage decline in post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly greater (P<0.05) on day 21 (mid-LUT phase) (-17.35+/-2.32 and -26.28+/-6.04%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was highest, compared to day 5 (mid-FOL phase) (-12.81+/-3.35 and -17.23+/-8.20%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was lowest. The deterioration in the severity of EIB during the mid-LUT phase was accompanied by worsening asthma symptoms and increased bronchodilator use. There was a negative correlation between the percent change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1) and salivary progesterone concentration. However, no such correlation was found between salivary estradiol and the percentage change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1). This study has shown for the first time that menstrual cycle phase is an important determinant of the severity of EIB in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Female asthmatic athletes may need to adjust their training and competition schedules to their menstrual cycle and to consider the potential negative effects of the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance.
SourceAvailable from: Yasemin Aydin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate influences of hormonal changes during rat estrous cycle on airway responsiveness to bronchoconstrictor and bronchodilator agents. Materials and methods: The study was performed in 5 groups of rat tracheal smooth muscle obtained during proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle, as well as the ovariectomized group (n:8/group). Cumulative acetylcholine contractions ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-3) M bath doses and the cumulative isoproterenol relaxations ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-3) M precontracted with 10(-5) M of acetylcholine were recorded on isolated tracheas placed in a computerized tissue bath system. Results: Acetylcholine-induced contractions ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M were significantly enhanced dose-dependently in tracheal smooth muscle from estrus rats compared to those from metestrus and ovariectomized rats. The relaxation induced by isoproterenol (10(-8)-10(-3) M) also significantly increased in tracheal smooth muscle precontracted with acetylcholine (10(-5)M) taken from estrus rats. However, acetylcholine-induced contractility increase in tracheal smooth muscle was much more prominent than isoproterenol-induced relaxations in tracheal smooth muscle from estrus rats. Conclusion: These findings indicated that changes in estrogen and/or progesterone levels during rat estrous cycle might affect acetylcholine and isoproterenol sensitivity of the tracheal smooth muscle.Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 10/2010; 40(5). DOI:10.3906/sag-0812-9 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is highly prevalent in elite athletes, especially in those training in cold dry environments. Dehydration of the airways plays a key role in this process. EIB has recently been linked to airway epithelial injury in asthmatic individuals. The aim of the study is to determine whether a short period of hyperpnoea of dry air causes airway epithelial disruption in winter and/or summer sport athletes. We hypothesise that urinary level of the Clara cell protein (CC16) – an indirect marker of permeability/cellular integrity of the lung epithelial barrier – will be increased after a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) test and that this increase will be larger in winter compared to summer athletes. Forty two female athletes – 28 summer athletes (age 31.1+/-1.7yr (SEM), training volume 9+/-1.1h/wk) and 14 winter athletes (age 21.4+/-0.8yr, training volume 12.0 ± 1.10h/wk) – took part in this study. They all performed an 8-min EVH test at a target ventilation rate of 30 times their baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). After the challenge, FEV1 was measured in duplicate at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 and 90min. A sustained decrease in FEV1 of at least 10% from baseline was considered positive. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60 and 90min recovery. CC16 concentration was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Ten summer athletes had a positive test (max FEV1 fall = 19.6+/-2.4%), whilst eighteen of the summer athletes and all the winter athletes were negative (max FEV1 fall = 5.7+/-0.7% and 5.3+/-0.7%, respectively). CC16 increased significantly after the challenge in all three groups (P<0.01) with no difference between groups: delta CC16 (max post-EVH minus baseline) in summer EVH negative athletes was 0.241+/-0.1 ng/μmol creatinine, 0.292+/-0.085 ng/μmol creatinine in summer EVH positive athletes, and 0.123+/-0.047ng/μmol creatinine in winter EVH negative athletes (P=0.415)In conclusion, a short period of hyperpnoea of dry air is associated with an increased rate of CC16 excretion in urine in both winter and summer athletes. This suggests that the integrity of the airway epithelium might be compromised by loss of airway surface lining fluid when athletes inhale dry air at high flow rates. This appears to occur irrespective of the degree of bronchoconstriction or regular training environment.14th Annual Congress of European College of Sport Science; 01/2009
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The menstrual cycle is the main responsible for changes in female physiology, which may affect some morphofunctional responses. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the influence of the different phases of the menstrual cycle on the physical flexibility of young women. METHODS: 44 volunteers were divided into a control group (n = 24), which made regular use of hormonal contraceptives, and an experimental group (n = 20), which did not use contraceptives. All volunteers underwent three days of evaluations, one for each phase of menstrual cycle (follicular, ovulatory and luteal). Anthropometric data (body mass, body mass index, waist and abdomen circumferences), and body composition data (body fat percentage and lean mass) were assessed. Flexibility was then analyzed through the sit and reach test on Wells bench. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was then applied for intragroup comparisons, and the Friedman test for comparison between the different menstrual phases. RESULTS: No significant differences between groups within and between different phases of the cycle were observed (p > 0.05). Greater variability within the control group was observed when compared to the experimental group. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the menstrual cycle phase and of the use of hormonal contraceptives, the physical flexibility is not altered in young women.Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 12/2012; 18(6):361-364. DOI:10.1590/S1517-86922012000600002 · 0.16 Impact Factor