Full breastfeeding duration and associated decrease in respiratory tract infection in US children.
ABSTRACT The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for an infant's first 6 months of life. When compared with exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months, greater protection against gastrointestinal infection, but not respiratory tract infection, has been demonstrated for the 6-month duration. The objective of this study was to ascertain if full breastfeeding of > or = 6 months compared with 4 to < 6 months in the United States provides greater protection against respiratory tract infection.
Secondary analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, a nationally representative cross-sectional home survey conducted from 1988 to 1994, was performed. Data from 2277 children aged 6 to < 24 months, who were divided into 5 groups according to breastfeeding status, were compared. Children who required neonatal intensive care were excluded. SUDAAN software was used to account for the complex sampling design. Logistic regression adjusted for confounding factors. Outcome measures included adjusted odds of acquiring pneumonia, > or = 3 episodes of cold/influenza, > or = 3 episodes of otitis media (OM), or wheezing in the past year or acquiring first OM at < 12 months of age.
In unadjusted analyses, infants who were fully breastfed for 4 to < 6 months (n = 223) were at greater risk for pneumonia than those who were fully breastfed for > or = 6 months (n = 136) (6.5% vs 1.6%). There were not statistically significant differences in > or = 3 episodes of cold/influenza (45% vs 41%), wheezing (23% vs 24%), > or = 3 episodes of OM (27% vs 20%), or first OM at < 12 months of age (49% vs 47%). Adjusting for demographic variables, childcare, and smoke exposure revealed statistically significant increased risk for both pneumonia (odds ratio [OR]: 4.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-14.35) and > or = 3 episodes of OM (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.06-3.59) in those who were fully breastfed for 4 to < 6 months compared with > or = 6 months.
This nationally representative study documents increased risk of respiratory tract infection including pneumonia and recurrent OM in children who were fully breastfed for 4 vs 6 months. These findings support current recommendations that infants receive only breast milk for the first 6 months of life.
Article: Breastfeeding after transplantation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life, and for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breastfeeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breastfeeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breastfeeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breastfeeding have been found to date in infants who were breastfed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breastfeeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.Bailliè re s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 09/2014; · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Widespread recommendations from health organisations encourage exclusive breastfeeding for six months. However, the addition of other fluids or foods before six months is common in many countries and communities. This practice suggests perceived benefits of early supplementation or lack of awareness of the possible risks. Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of supplementation for full-term healthy breastfed infants and to examine the timing and type of supplementation. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 March 2014) and reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Selection criteria: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in infants under six months of age comparing exclusive breastfeeding versus breastfeeding with any additional food or fluids. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected the trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Main results: We included eight trials (984 randomised infants/mothers). Six trials (n = 613 analysed) provided data on outcomes of interest to this review. The variation in outcome measures and time points made it difficult to pool results from trials. Data could only be combined in a meta-analysis for one secondary outcome (weight change). The trials that provided outcome data compared exclusively breastfed infants with breastfed infants who were allowed additional nutrients in the form of artificial milk, glucose, water or solid foods. In relation to the majority of the older trials, the description of study methods was inadequate to assess the risk of bias. The two more recent trials, were found to be at low risk of bias for selection and detection bias. The overall quality of the evidence for the main comparison was low. In one trial (170 infants) comparing exclusively breastfeeding infants with infants who were allowed additional glucose water, there was a significant difference favouring exclusive breastfeeding up to and including week 20 (risk ratio (RR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 1.99), with more infants in the exclusive breastfed group still exclusively breastfeeding. Conversely in one small trial (39 infants) comparing exclusive breastfed infants with non-exclusive breastfed infants who were provided with artificial milk, fewer infants in the exclusive breastfed group were exclusively breastfeeding at one week (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.92) and at three months (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.76) and there was no significant difference in the proportion of infants continuing any breastfeeding at three months between groups (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.03). For infant morbidity (six trials), one newborn trial (170 infants) found a statistically, but not clinically, significant difference in temperature at 72 hours (mean difference (MD) 0.10 degrees, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.19), and that serum glucose levels were higher in glucose supplemented infants in the first 24 hours, though not at 48 hours (MD -0.24 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.03). Weight loss was also higher (grams) in infants at six, 12, 24 and 48 hours of life in the exclusively breastfed infants compared to those who received additional glucose water (MD 7.00 g, 95% CI 0.76 to 13.24; MD 11.50 g, 95% CI 1.71 to 21.29; MD 13.40 g, 95% CI 0.43 to 26.37; MD 32.50 g, 95% CI 12.91 to 52.09), but no difference between groups was observed at 72 hours of life. In another trial (47 infants analysed), we found no significant difference in weight loss between the exclusively breastfeeding group and the group allowed either water or glucose water on either day three or day five (MD 1.03%, 95% CI -0.18 to 2.24) and (MD 0.20%, 95% CI -1.18 to 1.58). Three trials with four- to six-month-old infants provided no evidence to support any benefit from the addition of complementary foods at four months versus exclusive breastfeeding to six months nor any risks related either morbidity or weight change (or both). None of the trials reported on the remaining primary outcomes, infant mortality or physiological jaundice. Authors’ conclusions:We were unable to fully assess the benefits or harms of supplementation or to determine the impact from timing and type of supplementation. We found no evidence of benefit to newborn infants and possible negative effects on the duration of breastfeeding from the brief use of additional water or glucose water, and the quality of the evidence from a small pilot study on formula supplementation was insufficient to suggest a change in practice away from exclusive breastfeeding. For infants at four to six months, we found no evidence of benefit from additional foods nor any risks related to morbidity or weight change. Future studies should examine the longer-term effects on infants and mothers, though randomising infants to receive supplements without medical need may be problematic. We found no evidence for disagreement with the recommendation of international health associations that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for healthy infants for the first six months.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 11/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Infants who are exclusively breastfed receive natural protection against some infectious agents. This study examined whether there was protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the occurrence of hand, foot and mouth disease, which was an emerging infectious disease among children in China.MethodsA community-based case¿control study was carried out among children age 4 years or younger in Guangdong Province, China. Cases were newly diagnosed hand, foot and mouth disease. Controls were randomly sampled from healthy children from the nearby village. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for exclusive breastfeeding after adjusting for potential confounding factors.ResultsA total of 316 cases and 566 controls were included in the analysis. Significantly beneficial effect of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months was observed for hand, foot and mouth disease occurrence. The overall OR was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47-0.85) for exclusive breastfeeding compared with mixed feeding type. The age-specific analyses indicated that the protective effect persisted till the age of 28 months.Conclusions This study suggests that exclusive breastfeeding might have protective effect against HFMD infection among the children within 28 months of age.BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 14(1):645. · 2.56 Impact Factor