Article

Sleep-disordered breathing and upper airway size in pregnancy and post-partum. Eur Respir J

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
European Respiratory Journal (Impact Factor: 7.13). 03/2006; 27(2):321-7. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.06.00148204
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sleep-disordered breathing and snoring are common in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine whether pregnancy was associated with upper airway narrowing. One-hundred females in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited and 50 agreed to be restudied 3 months after delivery. One-hundred nonpregnant females were also recruited. Upper airway dimensions were measured using acoustic reflection. Snoring was less common in nonpregnant (17%) than pregnant females (41%; odds ratio (OR) 3.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-6.74) and returned to nonpregnant levels after delivery (18%; OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.06-0.40). Pregnant females had significantly smaller upper airways than nonpregnant females at the oropharyngeal junction when seated (mean difference 0.12; 95% CI 0.008-0.25), and smaller mean pharyngeal areas in the seated (mean difference 0.14; 95% CI 0.001-0.28), supine (mean difference 0.11; 95% CI 0.01-0.22) and lateral postures (mean difference 0.13; 95% CI 0.02-0.24) compared with the nonpregnant females. Pregnant females had smaller mean pharyngeal areas compared with post-partum in the seated (mean difference 0.18; 95% CI 0.02-0.32), supine (mean difference 0.20; 95% CI 0.06-0.35) and lateral postures (mean difference 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.39). In conclusion, this study confirmed increased snoring and showed narrower upper airways during the third trimester of pregnancy.

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    • "The prevalence of snoring in the current study was 39% which is in agreement with previous publications [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. The majority of women (65%) began to snore during pregnancy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Snoring is common among pregnant women and early reports suggest that it may bear a risk to the fetus. Increased fetal erythropoiesis manifested by elevated circulating nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) has been found in complicated pregnancies involving fetal hypoxia. Both erythropoietin (EPO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediate elevation of circulating nRBCs. The intermittent hypoxia and systemic inflammation elicited by sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) could affect fetal erythropoiesis during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal snoring will result in increased levels of fetal circulating nRBCs via increased concentrations of EPO, IL-6, or both. Women of singleton uncomplicated full-term pregnancies were recruited during labor and completed a designated questionnaire. Umbilical cord blood was collected immediately after birth and analyzed for nRBCs, plasma EPO and plasma IL-6 concentrations. Newborn data were retrieved from medical records. One hundred and twenty-two women were recruited. Thirty-nine percent of women reported habitual snoring during pregnancy. Cord blood levels of circulating nRBCs, EPO and IL-6 were significantly elevated in habitual snorers compared with non-snorers (p = 0.03, 0.005 and 0.01; respectively). No differences in maternal characteristics or newborn crude outcomes were found. Maternal snoring during pregnancy is associated with enhanced fetal erythropoiesis manifested by increased cord blood levels of nRBCs, EPO and IL-6. This provides preliminary evidence that maternal snoring is associated with subtle alterations in markers of fetal well being.
    Sleep Medicine 03/2011; 12(5):518-22. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.09.005 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    • "The prevalence of snoring in the current study was 39% which is in agreement with previous publications [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. The majority of women (65%) began to snore during pregnancy. "
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