Sleep-disordered breathing and snoring are common in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine whether pregnancy was associated with upper airway narrowing. One-hundred females in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited and 50 agreed to be restudied 3 months after delivery. One-hundred nonpregnant females were also recruited. Upper airway dimensions were measured using acoustic reflection. Snoring was less common in nonpregnant (17%) than pregnant females (41%; odds ratio (OR) 3.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-6.74) and returned to nonpregnant levels after delivery (18%; OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.06-0.40). Pregnant females had significantly smaller upper airways than nonpregnant females at the oropharyngeal junction when seated (mean difference 0.12; 95% CI 0.008-0.25), and smaller mean pharyngeal areas in the seated (mean difference 0.14; 95% CI 0.001-0.28), supine (mean difference 0.11; 95% CI 0.01-0.22) and lateral postures (mean difference 0.13; 95% CI 0.02-0.24) compared with the nonpregnant females. Pregnant females had smaller mean pharyngeal areas compared with post-partum in the seated (mean difference 0.18; 95% CI 0.02-0.32), supine (mean difference 0.20; 95% CI 0.06-0.35) and lateral postures (mean difference 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.39). In conclusion, this study confirmed increased snoring and showed narrower upper airways during the third trimester of pregnancy.
"The most probable cause of snoring during pregnancy is a narrowing of the upper airways due to edema. Izci has reported smaller upper airway dimensions among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls . High estradiol levels are the main cause of edemas in the airway mucosa  and other tissues. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of snoring and sleepiness is known to increase during pregnancy, and this might impact maternal health and obstetric outcome. However, the association between snoring and sleepiness during pregnancy is not fully understood. This study was aimed at investigating the development of snoring during pregnancy and prospectively assessing if there is an association between snoring and sleepiness or adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preeclampsia, mode of delivery, and fetal complications.
Consecutively recruited pregnant women (n = 500) received a questionnaire concerning snoring and sleep at the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who had rated their frequency of snoring at both occasions (n = 340) were divided into subgroups according to the development of snoring they reported and included in the subsequent analyses. Additional medical data were collected from the medical records.
The frequency of snoring was 7.9% in the 1st trimester and increased to 21.2% in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The women who snored already in early pregnancy had significantly higher baseline BMI (p = 0.001) than the women who never snored, but snoring was not associated with the magnitude of weight gain during pregnancy. Snoring women were more likely to experience edema in late pregnancy than the non-snorers. Women who started to snore during pregnancy had higher Epworth Sleepiness Scores than the non snorers in both early and late pregnancy. No significant association between obstetric outcome and snoring was found.
Snoring does increase during pregnancy, and this increase is associated with sleepiness, higher BMI at the start of pregnancy and higher prevalence of edema, but not with weight gain.
"Those who reported snoring often or every night in the last week comprised 28%, slightly higher than others have shown using self-reported data (10% - 25%) [1,2,6]; however, Izci et al. used partner reports to determine the presence and frequency of snoring, and found that 35% to 39% were frequent snorers [17,18]. That group also investigated the pathophysiology of snoring and showed that in the third trimester of pregnancy the upper airways are significantly narrower than in non-pregnant women , and that the difference was only in the seated position but not when the subjects were supine . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Sleep disturbances in late pregnancy are common. This study aimed to survey sleep problems in third trimester pregnant women and to compare sleep in the pre-pregnancy period with the third trimester.
Third-trimester women (n=650) were sent a postal survey containing questions relating to sleep experience, including perceived sleep quality, sleep difficulties, night waking, sleep environment, snoring, daytime tiredness and daytime napping. Time periods reported on were before pregnancy and in the last week.
Respondents numbered 244 (38%). Before pregnancy, the mean reported duration of night-time sleep was 8.1 (SD 1.1) hours; in the last week this had decreased to 7.5 (SD 1.8) hours (p<.0001). Only 29% rated their sleep quality in the last week as very good or fairly good, compared with 82% rating their sleep this way before the pregnancy. The main reasons for sleeping difficulties were discomfort (67%) and pain (36%). Snoring increased significantly over the course of the pregnancy, with 37% reporting snoring often or every night in the last week. Those with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of greater than 25 were significantly more likely to snore (p=.01). Only 4% of women had an abnormal Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (i.e. >10) prior to pregnancy, whereas in the last week 33% scored in the abnormal range. Likewise, 5% had regularly napped during the daytime before pregnancy, compared with 41% in the last week.
Sleep problems are common in women in late pregnancy, and increase markedly compared with before pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Snoring is common among pregnant women and early reports suggest that it may bear a risk to the fetus. Increased fetal erythropoiesis manifested by elevated circulating nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) has been found in complicated pregnancies involving fetal hypoxia. Both erythropoietin (EPO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediate elevation of circulating nRBCs. The intermittent hypoxia and systemic inflammation elicited by sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) could affect fetal erythropoiesis during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal snoring will result in increased levels of fetal circulating nRBCs via increased concentrations of EPO, IL-6, or both.
Women of singleton uncomplicated full-term pregnancies were recruited during labor and completed a designated questionnaire. Umbilical cord blood was collected immediately after birth and analyzed for nRBCs, plasma EPO and plasma IL-6 concentrations. Newborn data were retrieved from medical records.
One hundred and twenty-two women were recruited. Thirty-nine percent of women reported habitual snoring during pregnancy. Cord blood levels of circulating nRBCs, EPO and IL-6 were significantly elevated in habitual snorers compared with non-snorers (p = 0.03, 0.005 and 0.01; respectively). No differences in maternal characteristics or newborn crude outcomes were found.
Maternal snoring during pregnancy is associated with enhanced fetal erythropoiesis manifested by increased cord blood levels of nRBCs, EPO and IL-6. This provides preliminary evidence that maternal snoring is associated with subtle alterations in markers of fetal well being.
Sleep Medicine 03/2011; 12(5):518-22. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.09.005 · 3.15 Impact Factor
Sally Bailes, Dorrie Rizzo, Marc Baltzan, Roland Grad, Alan Pavilanis, Laura Creti, Catherine S Fichten, Eva Libman
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