Omega-3 fatty acids and the regulation of expression of endothelial pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory genes.
ABSTRACT By partially replacing the corresponding omega-6 analogues in membrane phospholipids, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the transcriptional activation of genes--e.g., adhesion molecules, chemoattractants, inflammatory cytokines--involved in endothelial activation in response to inflammatory and pro-atherogenic stimuli. This regulation occurs, at least in part, through a decreased activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB system of transcription factors, secondary to decreased generation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide. Such regulation by omega-3 fatty acids is likely linked to the presence of a higher number of double bonds in the fatty acid chain in omega-3 compared with omega-6 fatty acids. By similar mechanisms, omega-3 fatty acids have been recently shown to reduce gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, an inflammatory gene involved, through the activation of some metalloproteinases, in plaque angiogenesis and plaque rupture. The quenching of gene expression of pro-inflammatory pro-atherogenic genes by omega-3 fatty acids has consequences on the extent of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, early atherogenesis and later stages of plaque development and plaque rupture, ultimately yielding a plausible comprehensive explanation for the vasculoprotective effects of these nutrients.
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ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of lactones extracted from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort (LLC) in apoE-deficient mice (ApoE(-/-) mice) and proclaiming its underlying mechanisms. Expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and NF-κB around the atherosclerotic lesions was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To further validate the mechanism, effect of LLC on the secretion of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was measured by ELISA. And the activation of NF-κB was detected by western blot. Mice treated with LLC showed significant reduction in lesion sizes of thoracic segments of the aorta (p<0.01). Meanwhile, LLC treatment lead to decreases of serum TG, TC and LDL-C contents, respectively. LLC also decreased the expression of CD31, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the atherosclerotic plaque. Moreover, LLC at 3.125-25μg/mL can dose-dependently attenuate the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in TNF-α stimulated HUVECs. Western blot result indicated LLC inhibited activation of NF-κB. These results suggested that LLC could ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. The mechanism of action of LLC on anti-atherosclerotic effect may be attributed to the suppression of the production of NF-κB-dependent adhesion molecules.Fitoterapia 03/2014; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The endothelium is often viewed solely as the barrier that prevents the penetration of circulating lipoproteins into the arterial wall. However, recent research has demonstrated that the endothelium has an important part in regulating circulating fatty acids and lipoproteins, and is in turn affected by these lipids/lipoproteins in ways that appear to have important repercussions for atherosclerosis. Thus, a number of potentially toxic lipids are produced during lipolysis of lipoproteins at the endothelial cell surface. Catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins creates free fatty acids that are readily taken up by endothelial cells, and, likely through the action of acyl-CoA synthetases, exacerbate inflammatory processes. In this article, we review how the endothelium participates in lipoprotein metabolism, how lipids alter endothelial functions, and how lipids are internalized, processed, and transported into the subendothelial space. Finally, we address the many endothelial changes that might promote atherogenesis, especially in the setting of diabetes.Current Atherosclerosis Reports 11/2013; 15(11):365. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic microglial over-activation and oxidative stress. It is now beginning to be recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by either microglia or by the surrounding environment not only impact on neurons but also modulate microglial activity. In this review, we first analyze the hallmarks of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes of microglia and their regulation by ROS. Then, we consider the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide synthases and the new findings also indicate an essential role of glutathione in redox homeostasis of microglia. The effect of oxidant modification of macromolecules on signaling is analyzed at the level of oxidized lipid by-products and sulfhydryl modification of microglial proteins. Redox signaling has a profound impact on two transcription factors that modulate microglial fate, NF-κB and NRF2, master regulators of the pro-inflammatory and antioxidant responses of microglia, respectively. The relevance of these proteins in modulation of microglial activity and the interplay between them will be evaluated. Finally, the relevance of ROS in altering blood brain barrier permeability is discussed. Recent examples of the importance of these findings to the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases are also discussed. This review should provide a profound insight into the role of redox homeostasis in microglial activity and help in the identification of new promising targets to control neuroinflammation through redox control of the brain.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 03/2014; · 8.20 Impact Factor