Nerve growth factor: the central hub in the development of allergic asthma?
ABSTRACT Neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF), originally described as nerve growth factors in neuronal development, have been implicated in many physiological processes in the last years. They are now regarded as important factors involved in the resolution of pathological conditions. NGF has profound effects on inflammation, repair and remodeling of tissues. However, in the lung these beneficial effects can transact into disease promoting actions, e.g., in allergic inflammation or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Overproduction of NGF then enhances inflammation, and promotes (neuronal) airway hyperreactivity and neurogenic inflammation. We hypothesize that NGF overexpression in certain vulnerable time windows during infancy could be a major risk factor for the development of asthma symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) and dendritic cells (DCs) have been hypothesized to modulate T cell responses in a mouse model of asthma. However, whether NGF plays a role in regulating the maturation and polarization of lung DCs remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of NGF inhibition on the maturation and phenotype of lung DCs was investigated in a mouse model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and subsequently received anti-NGF treatment. At 24 h following the last challenge, airway responsiveness and inflammation were examined. The concentrations of NGF, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 were analyzed. In addition, maturation and CD103 expression in the lung DCs were investigated. Anti-NGF treatment was found to significantly reduce airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in asthmatic mice. In addition, a subdued T helper 2 (Th2) response was observed, characterized by the downregulation of IL-4 and the upregulation of IFN-γ. Furthermore, the expression of the DC surface molecules, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II, as well as the proportion of lung CD103(+) DCs, decreased in the OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The proportion of lung CD103(+) DCs also exhibited a positive correlation with the levels of plasma NGF in the mice. These results may provide an explanation for the role of NGF in amplifying the Th2 response in allergic diseases. Therefore, NGF may promote the maturation and polarization towards a Th2-stimulating phenotype of activated DCs, contributing to an amplification of the Th2 response in asthma.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 11/2014; 8(5):1402-1408. DOI:10.3892/etm.2014.1967 · 0.94 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is overexpressed in patients with inflammatory lung diseases, including virus infections. Airway surface liquid (ASL), which is regulated by epithelial cell ion transport, is essential for normal lung function. No information is available regarding the effect of NGF on ion transport of airway epithelium. To investigate whether NGF can affect ion transport, human primary air-interface cultured epithelial cells were placed in Ussing chambers to obtain transepithelial voltage (−7.1 ± 3.4 mV), short-circuit current (Isc, 5.9 ± 1.0 μA), and transepithelial resistance (750 Ω·cm2), and to measure responses to ion transport inhibitors. Amiloride (apical, 3.5 × 10−5 mol/L) decreased Isc by 55.3%. Apically applied NGF (1 ng/mL) reduced Isc by 5.3% in 5 min; basolaterally applied NGF had no effect. The response to amiloride was reduced (41.6%) in the presence of NGF. K-252a (10 nmol/L, apical) did not itself affect Na+ transport, but it attenuated the NGF-induced reduction in Na+ transport, indicating the participation of the trkA receptor in the NGF-induced reduction in Na+ transport. PD-98059 (30 μmol/L, apical and basolateral) did not itself affect Na+ transport, but attenuated the NGF-induced reduction in Na+ transport, indicating that trkA activated the Erk 1/2 signaling cascade. NGF stimulated phosphorylation of Erk 1/2 and the β-subunit of ENaC. K-252a and PD-98059 inhibited these responses. NGF had no effect on Isc in the presence of apical nystatin (50 μmol/L). These results indicate that NGF inhibits Na+ transport through a trkA-Erk 1/2-activated signaling pathway linked to ENaC phosphorylation.07/2014; 2(7). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12073
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ABSTRACT: Exercise is one of the most common triggers of bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. The low levels of circulating epinephrine produced by the adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCCs) are associated with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatics. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low-intensity aerobic exercise may ameliorate EIB using a rat model of asthma. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks of age, sensitized with ovalbumin or treated with saline, were subjected to low or moderate exercise training (50 or 75% of maximum velocity) for one hour in a treadmill 30 min after ovalbumin or saline inhalation. The exercise capacity, airway responsiveness, lung morphology, the morphological changes and endocrine function of AMCCs were measured in both groups of rats after exercise training for 6 weeks. Either low-intensity or moderate-intensity exercise mitigated EIB and increased exercise capacity in ovalbumin-sensitized (asthmatic) rats. Low-intensity aerobic exercise reduced the vacuolar degeneration degrees, lipid contents, neuronal peripherin and neurofilament-68 expression, demolished neurites, but increased the chromaffin granule density, endocrine chromogranin A and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase expression in the adrenal medullary tissues, accompanied by increased levels of circulating epinephrine and corticosterone, but decreased nerve growth factor in asthmatic rats. Finally, low-intensity aerobic exercise significantly reduced the relative levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated cAMP responsive element-binding protein and the relative mRNA expression levels of downstream molecules, including c-FOS and c-JUN in the adrenal medullary of asthmatic rats. We suggest that low-intensity aerobic exercise improves the endocrine dysfunction of AMCCs and mitigates EIB.The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2014; 234(2):99-110. DOI:10.1620/tjem.234.99 · 1.37 Impact Factor