Specific distribution of gabarap, gec1/gabarap Like 1, gate16/gabarap Like 2, lc3 messenger RNAs in rat brain areas by quantitative real-time PCR.
ABSTRACT GABARAP and GEC1/GABARAPL1 interact with tubulin and GABA(A) receptor and belong to a new protein family. This family includes GATE 16 and LC3, potentially involved in intracellular transport processes. In this study, we combined brain dissection and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to study discriminatively gabarap, gec1/gabarapL1, gate16/gabarapL2, lc3 mRNA distribution in multiple rat brain areas.
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ABSTRACT: Macroautophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation process, regulated by autophagy-related (atg) factors, in which a double membrane autophagosome engulfs cytoplasmic components to target them for degradation. In yeast, the Atg8 protein is indispensable for autophagosome formation. In mammals, this is complicated by the presence of six Atg8 homologues grouped into the GABARAP and MAP1LC3 subfamilies. Although these proteins share a high similarity, their transcript expression, regulation and protein interactions differ, suggesting they may display individual properties and specific functions. GABARAPL1/GEC1 is a member of the GABARAP subfamily and its mRNA is the most highly expressed Atg8 homologue in the central nervous system. Consequently, we performed an in depth study of GABARAPL1 distribution in the developing and adult murine brain. Our results show that GABARAPL1 brain expression is visible as early as embryonic day 11 and progressively increases to a maximum level in the adult. Immunohistochemical staining was detected in both fibers and immature neurons in embryos but was restrained to neurons in adult tissue. By E17, intense punctate-like structures were visible and these accumulated in cortical primary neurons treated with the autophagosome/lysosome fusion inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), suggesting that they represent autophagosomes. Finally, GABARAPL1 expression was particularly intense in motoneurons in the embryo and in neurons involved in somatomotor and neuroendocrine functions in the adult, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta, a region affected in Parkinson's disease. Our study of cerebral GABARAPL1 protein expression provides insight into its role in the development and homeostasis of the mouse brain.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63133. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proper developmental, neural cell-type-specific, and activity-dependent regulation of GABAergic transmission is essential for virtually all aspects of CNS function. The number of GABA(A) receptors in the postsynaptic membrane directly controls the efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission. Thus, regulated trafficking of GABA(A) receptors is essential for understanding brain function in both health and disease. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of mechanisms that allow dynamic adaptation of cell surface expression and postsynaptic accumulation and function of GABA(A) receptors. This includes activity-dependent and cell-type-specific changes in subunit gene expression, assembly of subunits into receptors, as well as exocytosis, endocytic recycling, diffusion dynamics, and degradation of GABA(A) receptors. In particular, we focus on the roles of receptor-interacting proteins, scaffold proteins, synaptic adhesion proteins, and enzymes that regulate the trafficking and function of receptors and associated proteins. In addition, we review neuropeptide signaling pathways that affect neural excitability through changes in GABA(A)R trafficking.Neuron 05/2011; 70(3):385-409. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GABARAPL1 belongs to the small family of GABARAP proteins (including GABARAP, GABARAPL1 and GABARAPL2/GATE-16), one of the two subfamilies of the yeast Atg8 orthologue. GABARAPL1 is involved in the intracellular transport of receptors, via an interaction with tubulin and GABA(A) or kappa opioid receptors, and also participates in autophagy and cell proliferation. In the present study, we identify the HSP90 protein as a novel interaction partner for GABARAPL1 using GST pull-down, mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. GABARAPL1 and HSP90 partially colocalize in MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressed Dsred-GABARAPL1 and in rat brain. Moreover, treatment of MCF-7 cells overexpressed FLAG-GABARAPL1-6HIS with the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG promotes the GABARAPL1 degradation, a process that is blocked by proteasome inhibitors such as MG132, bortezomib and lactacystin. Accordingly, we demonstrate that HSP90 interacts and protects GABARAPL1 from its degradation by the proteasome.Biochimie 11/2011; 94(3):748-58. · 3.14 Impact Factor