Anti-CD38 autoimmunity in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT To test for anti-CD38 autoimmunity in children with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1).
Serum anti-CD38 autoantibodies were detected by Western blot in 270 children (130 girls, 140 boys, mean age 8 +/- 4 years) with newly-diagnosed DM1 and 179 gender- and age-matched non-diabetic children. In 126 diabetic children, another blood sample was obtained 15 +/- 4 months after the diagnosis.
Anti-CD38 autoantibody titers at least 3 SD above the mean value for the control group were found in 4.4% of children with DM1 vs 0.6% of controls (chi2 = 5.8, p <0.016). No statistical differences were observed between anti-CD38 positive and negative patients in terms of phenotype. At follow-up, of six diabetic children who were positive for anti-CD38 antibodies, two were new cases. A positive correlation was found between the antibody titer of diabetic sera at diagnosis and follow up (r = 0.46, p <0.0001).
An autoimmune reaction against CD38, a protein expressed in human islets, is associated with newly-diagnosed DM1. In children with DM1, CD38 autoimmunity increases with time and persists.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of oxygen desaturation during sleep, the development of daytime sleepiness, and deterioration in the quality of life. Accumulating evidence suggests the association of intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of SAS, and type 2 diabetes independently on body mass index and waist circumference. In addition to insulin resistance, the progression to type 2 diabetes is dependent on the impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, the direct effects of IH on GIS are elusive. HIT-T15 hamster β-cells and isolated rat islets were exposed to 64 cycles/24 h of IH (5 min hypoxia/10 min normoxia) or normoxia for 24 h. Changes of GIS and gene expression in IH-treated β-cells were analyzed by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. After IH treatment, GIS both from IH-treated HIT-T15 cells and isolated rat islets were significantly attenuated. The level of insulin mRNA was unchanged by IH. The mRNA levels of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2), glucokinase (GK), sulfonylurea receptor1 (SUR1), and L-type Ca2+channel1.2 (Cav1.2) in IH-treated-islets were similar to those in normoxia-treated islets. In contrast, the mRNA level of CD38 in IH-treated islets was significantly lower than that in normoxia-treated islets. The reporter gene assay revealed that the transcription of CD38 was attenuated by IH, and the transfection of CD38 expression vector recovered the attenuation of GIS by IH. These results indicate that IH stress directly attenuates GIS from β-cells via the down-regulation of CD38.Life sciences 12/2011; 90(5-6):206-11. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2011.11.011 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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