A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) susceptible to rimantadine.
ABSTRACT Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV(KU-1bMC33) in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV(M2)) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV(VpuA19H) replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV(KU-1bMC33) and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV(KU-1bMC33). This SHIV(VpuA19H) virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV(M2). Electron microscopic examination of SHIV(VpuA19H)-infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV(M2)-infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the alteration of one amino acid and provide additional evidence that drugs targeting the Vpu TM/ion channel can be effective anti-HIV-1 drugs.
Article: Drug sensitivity, drug-resistant mutations, and structures of three conductance domains of viral porins.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent controversies associated with the structure of the M2 protein from influenza A virus and the binding site of drug molecules amantadine and rimantadine motivated the comparison here of the drug binding to three viral porins including the M2 proteins from influenza A and B as well as the viral protein 'u' from HIV-1. While the M2 protein from influenza B does not normally bind amantadine, chimeras with the M2 protein from influenza A show blockage by amantadine. Similarly, Vpu does not normally bind rimantadine, but the single site mutation A18H converts a non-specific channel to a selective proton channel that is sensitive to rimantadine. The comparison of structures and amino acid sequences shows that the membrane protein sample environment can have a significant influence on the structural result. While a bilayer surface bound amphipathic helix has been characterized for AM2, such a helix may be possible for BM2 although it has evaded structural characterization in detergent micelles. A similar amphipathic helix seems less likely for Vpu. Even though the A18H Vpu mutant forms rimantadine sensitive proton channels, the binding of drug and its influence on the protein structure appears to be very different from that for the M2 proteins. Indeed, drug binding and drug resistance in these viral porins appears to result from a complex set of factors.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2011; 1808(2):538-46. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 viruses are categorized into four distinct groups: M, N, O and P. Despite the same genomic organization, only the group M viruses are responsible for the world-wide pandemic of AIDS, suggesting better adaptation to human hosts. Previously, it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin. This led us to investigate if group O, and the related group P viruses, possess functional anti-tetherin activities in Vpu or another viral protein, and to further map the residues required for group M Vpu to counteract human tetherin. We found a lack of activity against human tetherin for both the Vpu and Nef proteins from group O and P viruses. Furthermore, we found no evidence of anti-human tetherin activity in a fully infectious group O proviral clone, ruling out the possibility of an alternative anti-tetherin factor in this virus. Interestingly, an activity against primate tetherins was retained in the Nef proteins from both a group O and a group P virus. By making chimeras between a functional group M and non-functional group O Vpu protein, we were able to map the first 18 amino acids of group M Vpu as playing an essential role in the ability of the protein to antagonize human tetherin. We further demonstrated the importance of residue alanine-18 for the group M Vpu activity. This residue lies on a diagonal face of conserved alanines in the TM domain of the protein, and is necessary for specific Vpu-tetherin interactions. The absence of human specific anti-tetherin activities in HIV-1 group O and P suggests a failure of these viruses to adapt to human hosts, which may have limited their spread.Retrovirology 09/2011; 8:78. · 6.47 Impact Factor